Series Vol. 23 , 07 November 2023
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
As the lithium-ion battery market continues to expand so far, the number of spent lithium-ion batteries continue to increase, and its impact on the environment cannot be ignored. It is of great necessity to find out a scientific and effective process to recycle spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Starting from the specific pollution of each part of LIBs to the environment, this paper expounds the recycling methods and emerging technologies of cathode materials with the largest proportion and the highest economic value. This paper believes that from the pre-treatment of spent LIBs, and then goes through whether it is thermometallurgy, hydrometallurgy or direct regeneration, each step of recovery process has its own use scenarios. There are still certain problems in industrial applications, recovery rate, safety, secondary pollution and other aspects. Some technologies such as bio-leaching are yet to be developed and are expected to be widely used in the near future. This paper looks forward to a more comprehensive development and breakthrough in the recycling technology of LIBs in the future, rather than being limited to cathode materials.
spent lithium-ion batteries, environment impacts, recycling, metal extraction
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The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.