Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Mechatronics and Smart Systems
Seyed Ghaffar, Brunel University London
Alan Wang, University of Auckland
With an increasingly strong concept from the public in protecting the ecological environment, green buildings account for more percentages in the buildings built in recent years. However, there are still many problems to be solved in the design and construction of green buildings. Therefore, this paper combines the construction and design process of the Shanghai Tower, a famous green high-rise building, and analyses many aspects, such as foundation, structural design, material selection, circulatory system, technology application, and other areas, to draw some options that can be effectively used and practiced in green buildings. For example, the selection of alternative materials and the promotion and application of energy-saving design aspects, the use of geothermal energy and rainwater resources near the building and the effectiveness that BIM can play provide inspiration for the future development of green building design and construction, as well as an important embodiment of the concept of green and sustainable development.
Due to the economy's tremendous growth and the technology's impressive advancement, the practicality of UAVs has become a hot topic of concern for all sectors of society at present. According to the classification of flight platform configuration, drones may be split into many different types. Quadrotor drones are a common type of aerial robot, which is widely used in civilian and military fields at this stage. The safety and stability of the UAV in use are particularly important, so its flight attitude must be humanly tuned and controlled. This paper mainly analyzes the attitude control technology of quadrotor UAVs. Firstly, the key components and technical difficulties of attitude control are analyzed. Then some common control methods and application scenarios of current mainstream control methods are introduced and analyzed in detail. Finally, future research directions are analyzed and summarized based on the existing methods.
The field of drones has received a lot of attention in recent years and is developing well. In the process of resource circulation in cities, UAVs play an increasingly important role, such as logistics, monitoring, emergency rescue, etc. However, traditional rotary-wing UAVs and fixed-wing UAVs can be limited in some conditions, such as load, cruising speed and take-off area. Based on the above reasons, this paper designs a rotor-driven VTOL fixed-wing UAV, which combines the vertical take-off and landing of rotor and the fast cruise of fixed-wing UAV and other characteristics. And based on this UAV, for the transition process from hovering state to cruising state, a PID controller is used to control the cruising speed, and then the flight altitude is controlled by a series-level PID controller. The final results show that the cruise speed can be stabilized at about 50km/h within 3 seconds by adjusting the PID parameters without considering the motor speed saturation. In addition, while ensuring the cruise speed reaches convergence quickly, the PID parameters of the acceleration loop, velocity loop and altitude loop can be adjusted separately to control the altitude error of the UAV within 5cm. This study provides a reference for researchers to study the control of rotor-driven UAVs in the transition process.
Fully actuated multi-rotor UAVs have gone through development in the last decades. This article collects studies on different UAV modelling design and feedback control to prove the feasibility of its full actuation. First, the structure design and model construction of fully actuated multi-rotor UAV are discussed and analyzed. Then, the types of fully actuated multi-rotor are classified and analyzed in combination with relevant papers in recent years. Then, the feedback control method is analyzed on the basis of mathematical modeling. Finally, he feasibility of design and control of fully driven UAV has been confirmed, and the future development trend is expected.
In recent years, with the rapid development of the social economy, the high-speed rail industry of all countries in the world has been improved to some extent. In the construction process of high-speed rail, construction cost is very important. It is highly valued by many infrastructure companies or teams. It not only serves as the foundation of the construction process but also can promote the whole project. This paper mainly studies the factors that affect high-speed railway construction costs in China and compares them with other countries. Based on the data, the geographical differences, labor force and technical standards change will have an impact on the cost of the construction, these three key factors deserve to be considered.
SiC can provide better material properties when the performance of Si - based power devices is almost developed to the limit. But compared with Si material, the reliability of SiC device is poor under ultimate stress. The short circuit capability of SiC MOSFET has been the main area of attention in this paper’s study. Through the analysis of SiC MOSFET short-circuit capability, it is mainly represented by the time that the device can withstand short-circuit stress and the time it takes for the device to be safely turned off in the event of a short circuit fault. Secondly, the detection circuit and protection circuit under the SiC MOSFET short-circuit fault are briefly studied, and the optimization ideas and working principles are summarized.
Along with the economic development of China, all industries have faced new opportunities. However, the fast development of the automobile industry has also negatively impacted environmental resources, such as petroleum resource consumption and environmental pollution. In order to protect the environment and travel green, this paper analyzes the progress of solar energy applied to cars as clean energy. First of all, this paper explains the working principle of solar cars and how to convert the collected solar energy into electric energy to store or provide kinetic energy for the car. Further, since the loss of air resistance of the car accounts for up to 60%, this paper analyzes the modeling and design principles of the solar car through aerodynamics. In addition, this paper focuses on the solar panel-related content, which is the core part of the solar car, puts forward and introduces the spherical solar cell not popular in China, and finally puts forward relevant suggestions for the pilot of the solar car. Reducing the kinetic energy loss caused by air resistance and improving the efficiency of solar energy conversion should be the focus of the future development of solar vehicles.
The power system is rapidly transforming into a new large-scale distributed power generation model using renewable energy. Grid-connected converters, particularly voltage control compensators like STATCOM, will be crucial to the functioning of this new situation. Voltage source converter (VSC) is one of the most commonly used topologies in grid connection converters. As a distributed power-generating device, VSCs can be utilized as a means of connecting sustainable energy sources to the power grid. The three-phase voltage source currents or voltage ripples may appear in the DC chain. This study examines the enhanced three-phase VSC, pinpoints the factors that contribute to the great performance of VSCs, and looks at future trends in three-phase VSCs. VSC is a power electronic device capable of converting DC voltages to three-phase AC voltages and is commonly used in areas such as grid connection, reactive power compensation and harmonic suppression. In practical applications, various types of grid or load disturbances pose hidden dangers to the normal operation of the VSC. Due to the presence of unbalanced grids and loads, significant double frequency.
The development of green aircraft has become the core consensus of human society with the rise of new energy. Zero carbon emissions are a crucial step toward green aviation in the future with new energy planes. Additionally receiving a lot of attention and sparking a development frenzy are new energy aircraft. Focusing on the development of new energy aviation is crucial, particularly in light of China's dual-carbon strategy. This paper analyzes the necessity of vigorously developing new energy aircraft and new energy aviation tracks and briefly describes the influence of aviation on the environment, the application of electricity in aircraft and the development course of electric aircraft. This paper introduces the research status and future development trend of new energy aviation at home and abroad. This article offers some recommendations for the growth of new energy aviation against the backdrop of the double carbon strategy, providing the fundamental theoretical underpinnings for the transformation of green and low-carbon new energy aviation in China.
In order to protect the environment in present-day society, green buildings are seen as an effective and logical solution. Insulating materials are frequently widely used in green buildings to reduce their energy dissipation. China, as a global power, is at the forefront of ecological development. This paper will focus on the study of thermal insulations in the context of green concepts, a specific analysis of their properties and examples of their application in China. It is found that most of the green developments lack economic support and therefore, insulation materials need to be developed in the direction of low cost and high efficiency and effectively reduce their harmful effects on the environment. Furthermore, the development of insulation materials in China should pay attention to geographical differences, i.e. the insulation materials that can be applied in different regions in the North and South are different. This study will facilitate the application of insulating materials in China's ecological development, reducing related energy losses and protecting the surrounding environment.
Recycled concrete consists of cement, water and aggregates as conventional concrete; however, the difference is that the former includes a certain percentage of recycled aggregates to achieve environmental friendliness and economic efficiency. This article would focus on the existed application of recycled coarse (RCA) and fine (RFA) aggregate in concrete manufacturing and observe the material properties, such as compressive strength, shear strength, and slump value with different proportion of recycled aggregate mixed during fabrication. Based on sample results from existed experiments, for different amount of recycled coarse aggregate applied for concrete making, the material property would be varied and the appropriate amount of recycled coarse aggregate applied is around 50% for aggregate proportion (could be different for different type of RCA applied). In RFA section, two main resources of RFA are introduced, which are the wasted bricks and concrete. By investigating related research articles, the conclusion of wasted concrete is better than wasted bricks in making RFA is obtained. Several researches are included in RFA replacement experiments, and the conclusion of RFA replacement is that the proportion should be less than 20% in fine aggregate part. Also, intermediate materials such as fly ash, slag powder and silica fume should be applied to guarantee the cohesive property of concrete product. This article illustrates the hurdles and benefits of recycled aggregate application in current stage, and the prospects of recycled aggregates application in concrete products can be more predictable by analyzing the available experiments
Many different types of beneficial exoskeletons have been developed in recent years. The majority of them are intended to lessen the likelihood of a variety of lumbar compression injuries and other types of ailments that workers may be subjected to when they are engaged in repetitive single-activity labour. Work-related muscular and skeletal disorders, often known as WMSDs, are the most prevalent type of muscular and skeletal disorder found in the working population. It is brought on by a single motion that is repeated over and over again. This condition of the muscular and skeletal system significantly lowers both the productivity and the happiness index of workers. In this study, recent research results from a variety of different research teams are presented, their research methods and research conclusions are analysed, and a discussion of the current and next research trends and directions pertaining to assistive exoskeletons is offered.
3D printing technology has a wide range of applications in the medical field, one of which is for bone reconstruction and repair. Through 3D printing technology, artificial bone tissue or implants of various shapes, sizes, and materials can be produced. These implants can be used to replace damaged natural bones, resulting in relatively significant effects on bones. First of all, 3D printing technology can be personalized designed and manufactured according to the specific situation of the patient, enabling the repaired implant to better adapt to the physical characteristics of the patient, achieving better improvement and treatment effects. In addition, 3D printing can generate implants with internal irregular structures (such as grid shaped, honeycomb shaped, etc.) that can promote the attachment of biomaterials and the growth of bone cells, accelerating bone healing. Secondly, 3D printing technology can enable doctors and patients to better understand the shape and structure of implants, thereby improving communication and collaboration, and improving the accuracy of surgical treatment. Similarly, 3D printing technology can also generate virtual simulation models through which doctors can conduct surgical planning and demonstration, reducing the risk and difficulty of surgery. Finally, because 3D printing technology can use a variety of different materials, it is possible to manufacture various implants, including metals, plastics, ceramics, and so on. These materials have their own characteristics and can play an important role in bone repair and reconstruction. For example, metal implants can provide better mechanical support and structural stability, while ceramic implants have better biocompatibility and corrosion resistance.
With social progress and technological development, mobile robots have played an important role in industries, medical care, safety, home and other fields due to their advantages of saving labor costs, reducing personnel work intensity, and avoiding potential job hazards. Especially in indoor environments, such as industrial indoor operations, warehousing and logistics distribution, indoor safety patrols, and other application scenarios, mobile robots have highlighted inestimable application value. Intelligent mobile robot is an important tool in the field of service and automation, and robot navigation technology is an important technology for intelligent mobile robot to achieve self-positioning, robot mapping and path planning. This paper expounds three technologies of mobile robot navigation mapping: visual mapping and positioning, lidar mapping and positioning, and sensor fusion mapping and positioning. After that, the method of path planning of the mobile robot is analyzed. Finally, the application of intelligent mobile robots in factory automation and supermarket guidance is pointed out, and the development trend of intelligent mobile robots is prospected.
Vibration isolation systems are widely used in high-end automobile manufacturing, precision instrument processing, building and bridge seismic resistance, ship machinery noise reduction and other engineering fields, with good development prospects. At present, the existing vibration isolation systems on the market are mainly divided into active and passive vibration isolation systems. Passive vibration isolation does not require external energy input. Its structure is simple and the control scheme is easy to implement. However, passive vibration isolation performs well in high frequency vibration but not in low frequency. As a new nonlinear low-frequency vibration isolation technology, the quasi-zero stiffness vibration isolation system has changed the traditional concept of linear system vibration isolation. In addition, compared with traditional spring, air spring as a new type of elastic vibration isolation mechanism has many excellent performances, such as high fatigue resistance and high stiffness. Therefore, this paper uses air spring to design a passive vibration isolation quasi-zero stiffness air spring structure with good vibration isolation effect, simple structure and low cost in both low-frequency and high-frequency vibration.
Nowadays, the problem of energy deficiency is getting more and more serious. The search for clean and sustainable energy is of great importance. The research topic of this article is the construction of an offshore floating structure which combines the offshore wind power and photovoltaic power. Firstly, the main platform structure is researched. Secondly, the calculation of stability, wind load and wave load are conducted to examine the safety of the structure. Finally, the cost is estimated. The calculation results indicate that that the platform has a splendid stability, and it can adapt the sea wave and wind environment. The cost of the platform is also reasonable. This research can be used as an example for development and utilization of offshore energy.
With the development of science and technology, land resources have been over-exploited and cannot meet the needs of development, so people gradually turn to the ocean for development. The ocean not only occupies two thirds of the earth, but also contains a variety of rich resources. They not only meet people's huge demand for energy, but also most of the resources in the ocean are green and renewable energy, which not only reduces the cost of resource development to a certain extent, but also reduces the impact on the environment in the development process. An offshore multifunctional power generation platform is designed in this paper. The impact of chemical substances produced when the anti-corrosion coating on the surface of the platform on the Marine environment is analysed. Compared with the construction cost of offshore resources development, the reduction of carbon emissions and the impact of offshore platforms on the marine environment were studied respectively. The final cost per kw of the platform is at the average level of an offshore power generation project. Carbon emission reduction is much less than traditional onshore power generation projects. The pollution to the marine environment is also within the provisions of the marine pollution index.
In order to simplify trackside equipment and realize shorter travel intervals, this paper proposes a virtual coupling CBTC system. The system structure, key technology, and train function module of the virtual coupling CBTC system scheme are analyzed. This paper also analyzes the system operation in the normal and fault operation scenarios and gives suggestions on the safety measures taken in the fault scenario, which provides reference for the engineering application of the system. It is found that the virtual coupling operation based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication can effectively reduce the operation cost and improve the operation efficiency.
The current UAV technology is developing rapidly and there are various UAV concepts such as hybrid vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAV in addition to traditional UAV. The main solution direction of these UAV concepts lies in the compatibility of vertical take-off and landing and long endurance and high load. However, in some complex environments, such as post-earthquake debris, or uneven mountainous terrain, UAV take-off and landing still has great difficulties. Therefore, this paper designs a landing gear that can adapt to complex ground conditions and its corresponding landing algorithm based on DJI's publicly available UAV model. First, a movable landing gear controlled by a linear actuator is used to adapt to a variety of complex terrains. Then, we designed a UAV foot similar to a 3D carved needle with oil-hydraulic cushioning to make it fit more to the complex ground and stand stably on the ground. Then, we obtained the mathematical relationship between the linear actuator and the landing gear moving end based on the simplified mathematical model of the UAV model, and applied it in the subsequent landing algorithm. And then, in detecting the landing point, we use the column coordinate system for coordinate simulation while the algorithm written in C language to get the most suitable UAV landing point. Finally, we have simulated the UAV landing using MATLAB and the results show the high engineering value.
Due to the high mobility and longer durability, UAVs are widely used in military and various civilian fields. The control system of the UAVs is a key part of ensuring that the UAVs fulfil various instructions and complete the tasks. In response to the above issues, this paper summarizes and analyses the current status of motion control algorithms for unmanned aerial vehicles based on existing data. Firstly, the mainstream control technology of UAVs is divided into linear control technology, nonlinear control technology and machine learning-based control technology, and they are discussed separately. Subsequently, the performance of three technologies is evaluated and compared, and the advantages, disadvantages and the applicable environment of each controller are introduced. Finally, the future development direction of UAVs controller is analysed and prospected.