Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Functional Materials and Civil Engineering
Bhupesh Kumar, University of St Andrews
In order to solve the restrictions on athletes and the time and cost of equipment replacement caused by traditional sports equipment, which are easy to corrode, have short service life, poor mechanical properties, and are relatively heavy, etc., more excellent polymer materials and new materials are used in various aspects. technology to replace traditional materials. At the same time, the diversified characteristics of polymer materials can provide more types of choices for various sports equipment. In order to understand the application and influence of polymer composite materials in competitive sports, the application of polymer compounds is analyzed in combination with the preparation process in this paper, material performance and performance requirements of sports equipment. By comparing the performance of athletes in different eras without using the same equipment and the length of their competitive career, this paper concluded that the application of polymer composite materials in competitive sports has greatly improved the performance of athletes and reduced the risk of injury , It also increases convenience and safety for ordinary people.
The primary issue with concrete structures is steel bar corrosion. Therefore, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) bars are often to substitute steel bars to tackle the issue of concrete swelling and cracking brought about by steel corrosion. FRP bars’ feature improved corrosion resistance, a stronger strength-to-quality ratio, and better fatigue resistance. However, the alkaline environment will affect the long-term strength and durability of FRP, according to certain research, which will cause the FRP bars’ mechanical characteristics to deteriorate. In this paper, the properties of FRP bars under alkaline conditions are reviewed, considering the harsh external environment and physical properties of FRP bars. Comprehensive investigation concludes that lowering the PH value of concrete and changing the kind of fiber material may considerably increase the endurance of FRP in alkaline environments. By demonstrating the microscopic breakdown process of FRP bars in an alkaline conditions using scanning electron microscopy. The Arrhenius acceleration theory was used to construct the present model for forecasting the long-term mechanical behavior of FRP bars, which shows how this material degrades under alkaline circumstances. This study may be utilized as a reference for FRP bars used in alkaline environments in terms of durability studies.
This review focuses on the impact of numerous conditions on the fluorescence function of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) as biomarkers. Factors such as particle size, structure and different ligand types are explored. First off, differential stability, sensitivity, cellular uptake, and biodistribution as well as red or blue shifts in absorption and emission wavelengths are caused by varied particle sizes. Furthermore, in the context of detecting microRNA using AgNC-based probes, the presence of a mismatched self-dimer structure is also crucial for achieving a significant red emission. In the final section, the considerable influence of ligands—divided into primary and secondary ligands—on the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of atomically accurate AgNCs is examined with a focus on Ag29 nanoclusters.
The various characteristics of shape memory alloys, such as hyperelasticity, memory alloy effect and so on, make shape memory alloys become a new type of material with broad engineering applications. These components developed based on the characteristics of shape memory alloys are not only used in the aerospace field, but also in various fields such as bridges and railways, and can be used for various purposes such as bridge vibration control and intelligent hybrid control. This article mainly introduces several characteristics of shape memory alloys, and explains the practical application and development prospects of shape memory alloys in the aerospace field. Based on these studies, this article studies the characteristics of shape memory alloys through equation calculus and ANSYS simulation experiments modeling. It can be foreseen in the future that with the development of intelligent control technology, shape memory alloy structures will have a larger operating temperature range, more precise structural control, and will be applied in a wider variety of spacecraft structures.
Piezoelectric transducers have seen widespread usage in the monitoring of structural health. It has tremendous potential for monitoring the health of infrastructure, especially pavement monitoring. In the present study, the impedance characteristics of a piezoelectric plate embedded in the pavement is utilized to monitor the health status of the pavement. Based on the piezoelectricity principle, a model of an electromechanical piezoelectric plate embedded in pavement is established. The damage of the pavement is considered as the thickness decreasing of the pavement layer. The present proposed model is verified by comparing its degeneration with the exact solution of a single layer model. Numerical results demonstrated that with the deceasing of the thickness of the pavement, which is considered as the deterioration of the pavement, the achievable maximum electromechanical impedance characterization including impedance, admittance and conductance decreased. This demonstrated that the achievable maximum impedance, admittance and conductance of an embedded piezoelectric plate could be used as the indicator of pavement health monitoring. This study primarily presents theoretical underpinnings for pavement monitoring using electromechanical impedance of piezoelectric plates.
Structural topology optimization seeks to identify the most efficient way to allocate material within a given domain to achieve a specific design objective. This research area has broad applications in various fields, including mechanical design and other physical disciplines. Over the past two decades, a great variety of applications and diverse research papers on structural topology optimization have been undertaken and published in the last two decades to highlight its acceptance and advantages. This paper presents a scientometric analysis of 5713 papers published between 2000 and 2022 to provide an overview and visualization of the development of structural topology optimization. While there are numerous approaches to topology optimization, this study focuses on presenting a quantitative analysis of the most popular and influential methods. The method used in this paper involved data collection and analysis through CiteSpace, one of the most popular software tools in this field. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments of research in structural topology optimization and identifies key directions for future research. The analysis of the top 10 co-cited articles revealed four main approaches that have been developed for structural topology optimization.
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, people's lifestyles have been significantly changed. In a post-epidemic era, some of the existing social problems are magnified by the changes in lifestyle. Temporary isolation at home becomes commonplace and continuously makes people think more carefully and deeply about their houses' functionality, safety, and comfort. In addition, the emotional impact of the epidemic has also forced people to get more security and happiness from the outside environment. By summarizing the problems of the existing buildings during the epidemic, this paper collects and studies different types and characteristics of movable architecture to conclude how these transformable designs can help people deal with the problems exposed in functional space and mental needs arising from the epidemic era. The results of different transformable architecture techniques on spatial boundaries are summarized from transformable or movable buildings. The combination and penetration of transformable architecture with different scales of space are used as the entry point to propose that movable architecture can promote communication and exchange between people. The core value of movable architecture is to break the inherent boundary of architectural space and make more connections between the inside and outside space. Thus, it lays the foundation for having more face-to-face communication between people.
With the development of science and technology, China is building more and more Bridges. The inspection and maintenance of bridge during operation plays an important role in the safety of bridge. Firstly, the research background and significance of bridge structure health inspection are introduced, and the research status and progress of health inspection are analyzed. Then, several commonly used monitoring methods are listed. Based on the comprehensive study of the bridge health monitoring system, the main conclusions are as follows: the bridge health monitoring system is realized through the coordination of several subsystems, including: bridge working environment monitoring, bridge structure overall performance monitoring and bridge structure local performance monitoring. The bridge structural health monitoring system is mainly used in bridge damage identification and bridge safety warning. The bridge structure health monitoring system conforms to the development trend of high technology and will become an indispensable part of the bridge operation in the future.
With the continuous advancement of China's economic construction, the population density is increasing, and the construction of high-rise buildings is also constantly advancing. This paper addresses settlement issues related to the construction of tall buildings. The author conducts a comprehensive analysis of the current state of tall buildings in China and explores the causes and negative impacts of settlement. To proactively mitigate settlement in high-rise buildings, the author presents two established monitoring methods based on triangulation. The first method employs fiber optic sensors, while the second utilizes a differential pressure settlement monitoring system. The authors recognize that each method has its own strengths and limitations, underscoring the significance of selecting an appropriate monitoring solution tailored to the specific project's characteristics.
Accelerating the application of information integration technology, represented by Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology, in green building projects is important to meet the demands of sustainable and high-quality development of the construction sector. According to the development status of BIM technology, the specific application of BIM technology in green building design and construction is first introduced. On this foundation, the importance of the appropriate BIM technology functions to the creation of green buildings is examined. It shows the outstanding advantages of green building projects based on BIM technology. In the architectural design stage, BIM technology can accommodate more architectural details than traditional design, and greatly improve the efficiency of information communication between project parties during the design process. In terms of building construction, building details being planned using BIM technology can greatly reduce the waste of resources. Thus, it can meet the requirements of green construction and provide guarantee for the construction period and quality. This paper can provide technical reference for the BIM-based green building design and construction stage application of similar projects by relevant practitioners and construction enterprises.
The stainless-clad bimetallic steel not only has strong corrosion resistance, but also has low production cost and high strength. Compared with a single stainless steel or ordinary carbon steel material, the strengths of stainless-clad bimetallic steel are obvious, such as a wider market prospect and better material properties. Presently, the stainless-clad bimetallic steel has been successfully applied in the maintenance system of railway steel bridge panels and high-rise building curtain wall. In order to promote the application of stainless-clad bimetallic steel in structural engineering, this paper systematically introduces the manufacturing process of the stainless-clad bimetallic steel, including production technology and welding technology. In addition, the mechanical properties such as corrosion resistance and composite interface properties are studied and analyzed. The research of the stainless-clad bimetallic steel has important economic significance, social significance and strategic value. It is hoped that results from this paper can provide reference for researches on the stainless-clad bimetallic steel in the further.
The construction industry is a pillar industry to improve people's quality of life and promote social and economic development. It has the characteristics of high energy consumption and high pollution, which deviates from the requirements of green development advocated by people at present. In view of healthy long-term development, the building industry needs to take effective measures to reduce energy use. The components used in prefabricated steel construction projects are mainly processed in factory batches. After transportation to the construction site, they only need to be assembled in accordance with standard specifications and processes, which can shorten the construction period, reduce the generation of construction waste, and fully meet the development requirements of energy conservation and emission reduction. Therefore, prefabricated green steel structure has been widely used in the construction of modern public buildings. Firstly, this paper summarizes and analyses the development status and main types of prefabricated green steel structure. The practical application in public building construction is also discussed. It is hoped that the results can provide a valuable reference for the construction of similar projects.
In response to the growing severity of the energy crisis, buildings in cold regions are faced with many challenges due to their unique geographical limitations and characteristics. This paper focuses on the design method of Green Buildings in cold climate, aiming to solve the poor thermal insulation performance, high energy consumption and environmental pollution. Firstly, the definition and background of Green Building in cold areas are introduced. The practical application effect of Green Building design in cold regions is discussed from different angles, and the development trend and suggestions of Green Building design in cold regions are put forward. In addition, in order to ensure that these measures achieve the desired effect, there is also a need for a sound evaluation system to monitor and evaluate the sustainability and practical effects of Green Buildings. The paper concludes with a summary of the future trend of Green Building design development in cold areas and suggestions. The research findings in this paper are of great importance in promoting sustainable building development in cold regions.
BIM technology is a new technology that is at the forefront of research in the field of civil engineering, and has been preliminarily applied in the design stage of infrastructure. However, BIM software design professionals are not widely used in China, and projects that use BIM to design urban bridges are still relatively rare. This paper is the analysis of existing cases of urban Bridges designed based on BIM related software. The methods and steps of using BIM related software for design are summarized. It is concluded that BIM technology can play a role in improving and enhancing the 2D design results in the design of urban Bridges, improve the efficiency of bridge design, and pave the way for the subsequent construction stage and operation and maintenance stage. Through the analysis of the application of BIM in urban Bridges, this paper provides basis and reference for the design projects of urban Bridges in the future.
With the development of modern science and technology, the application of concrete is more and more extensive, and the performance of traditional concrete has been difficult to meet the high requirements of engineering. All countries in the world are committed to seeking concrete with good construction performance, good durability, long service life and other advantages. Durability is the main design index of high performance concrete (HPC), so this paper studies and analyzes the main factors affecting the durability of HPC and the technical ways to improve the durability of concrete. The main internal factors affecting the durability of HPC are high water consumption and unstable hydrate in cement. External factors are various environmental conditions and protective measures of concrete structures. The technical ways to improve the durability of concrete mainly include reasonable structural design, reasonable concrete mix ratio, adding mineral admixtures and admixtures, reliable construction technology and regular maintenance. In the future, high-performance concrete should develop in the direction of economic green, and try to be environmentally friendly and recyclable while meeting the strength needs.
In China, there are many reinforced concrete frame buildings that have reached the end of their design life, or have not been designed with seismic requirements in mind and need to be reinforced. In this paper, a reinforced concrete frame structure which needs to be reinforced is taken as an example. Two common reinforcement methods are used to reinforce the reinforced concrete frame structure by adding shear wall and increasing column section. BIM-GSSAP software is used to analyze maximum inter-storey drift angle and the member response under frequent earthquakes, and the whole structure of the weak layer under rare earthquakes is checked. The results show that both methods can significantly improve the seismic performance of buildings. At the same time, combined with the project example, the advantages and disadvantages of the construction process are analyzed, which can provide a useful case reference for this kind of reinforced concrete frame structure projects.
Prestressing technology is widely used in buildings, Bridges and other infrastructures, but the problem of prestress loss has been a hinder for the use and maintenance of these facilities. so how to find the existence of prestress loss in time and accurately measure the existing effective prestress is a hot topic. This paper focuses on the development of prestress loss identification methods. They can be classified according to the technical route of direct measurement and indirect calculation. A large number of studies have shown that prestress loss often occurs in the construction stage of the structure. In order to better avoid the problems that may occur during this period, intelligent tensioning and grouting technology has been proposed and is constantly developing, serving various projects. By summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of existing studies, analysis of the means of prestress loss limitation can be formed, looking forward to peek the future development trend of intelligent control methods.
In view of the defects of the current mainstream structural safety analysis method of Truss bridge, the safety analysis method at the component level should be further developed. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the overall safety analysis and structural optimization at the structural level. Based on the concrete data of the actual steel truss beam bridge, this paper uses ABAQUS and MIDAS finite element software to model the truss structure. First of all, the static analysis is carried out, and then the structural analysis and optimization of the steel truss beam bridge is carried out with the elastic modulus reduction method. Based on the linear elastic finite element method, the bearing state of each component is solved, and the ultimate bearing capacity of the whole structure is calculated iteratively. Thus, the limitation of incremental nonlinear finite element method is overcome, and higher calculation accuracy and efficiency are realized.
Prefabricated steel structures are more energy efficient and adaptable than ordinary structures. The characteristics of prefabricated steel structures can better meet the needs of modern buildings, such as diversification, large space, and high strength. At the same time, it has the advantages of shortening the expected construction period and improving the construction efficiency. In this paper, the plant of Pingshan new energy automobile Industrial Park in Shenzhen is taken as a case to study the key construction technology of steel structure in prefabricated high-rise building. Firstly, the plant of Pingshan new energy automobile Industrial Park in Shenzhen is compared with the ordinary plant, and the advantages and disadvantages of the first "skyscraper" workshop are analyzed. Then, section construction technology of steel structure plant members, high-rise steel structure lifting technology, green building technology are analyzed, respectively. Finally, the prospect and development of prefabricated building are expounded. It is suggested that the prefabricated high-rise building can be used in more architectural designs.
In this paper, the characteristics and modes of pedestrian load are summarized, and the norms of pedestrian load in different countries are compared. At the same time, the pedestrian excitation load is briefly introduced .Then, combining the three conditions of single, double and three-person pedestrian load with the above four common pedestrian load conditions, 12 groups of different load conditions are formed, and the case study is carried out, and the conclusion is drawn as follows: Under the condition of slow walking, the vertical peak acceleration response of the structure under inconsistent stride length slightly increases, but the impact on the pedestrian comfort of the bridge is not significant. When walking slowly and at the same pace, the vertical peak acceleration of the structure increases significantly, which has a significant impact on the pedestrian comfort of the bridge. The common vibration control measures are also introduced. Through the comparison of relevant regulations, combined with case studies and common vibration control measures, it is hoped that it will be helpful to improve the comfort of pedestrian Bridges in the future, and the relevant regulations in China will be revised.