Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Functional Materials and Civil Engineering
Bhupesh Kumar, University of St Andrews
Many super high-rise buildings emerge in modern cities with urban development, facilitating work, accommodations, etc. However, their safety risks and accidents due to the wind are urgent problems with the complex flow field in cities. The research on wind loads of super high-rise buildings is thus crucial, but most studies tend to consider only the influence of the surrounding single-scale building clusters, rarely considering multi-scale ones. In this paper, the influence of the surrounding multi-scale building clusters on the wind loads of a super high-rise building is investigated. The wind field of a super high-rise building surrounded by four different arrangements of idealized, simplified buildings is first simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods: RANS and Hybrid LES/RANS models. It is found that surrounding tall buildings can significantly affect the pressure distribution on the windward and leeward sides of the super high-rise building, such as fluctuating, extreme, and mean wind pressure. The vortex, formed largely due to short buildings, increases the negative pressure at the back of the super high-rise building. In addition, simulations are conducted for the wind field around the CITIC Tower in Beijing CBD, and it is found that the flow field of the actual building group is more complex due to the strong interactions between buildings, and the flow near the ground is even more complex. All simulation results are validated by the wind tunnel tests. This study can provide important guidance for the wind safety design of super high-rise buildings and the future planning of urban buildings.
One of the most important things that affect people’s lives is transit. Everyone relies on transit to go to different places. Due to a high amount of private car ownership in the city, traffic jams start to occur. Then, demands start to show up on public transit. Lots of people nowadays rely on public transit to go to different places. Therefore, a small modification on a transit line could affect a massive number of residents. To build an accessible and eco-friendly transit has always been a goal for most of the city governments and agencies. In this essay, some factors that affect modern transit and people’s intention to ride transit in Shanghai will be discussed. Shanghai’s different transit factors, including private cars ownership, public transit coverage, and eco-friendly fleet rate will be compared among two other similar cities globally. Some suggestions on different dimensions of transit will be given to help Shanghai to build a greener and more efficient transit, to reduce the air pollution and traffic congestion.
GaN is a third-generation semiconductor. As an ideal material of the new generation semiconductor today, it has many features such as high saturated electron mobility and wide band. The methods of GaN growth developed rapidly recently. We reviewed recent artiles and then we collect the various of methods about the GaN single crystal growth, after that we compare the difference among these method. This paper mainly talks about three methods of growing GaN single crystal: The Ammonothermal method, the Sodium-flux growth method, and the Halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), and we collect both of the advantages and disadvantages. By putting all characteristics of each methods together we found that combining the HVPE method and Ammonothermal method together can connect the advantages together and avoid some of these disadvantages. We can use the HVPE method to grow the GaN seed and expand the crystal using the Ammonothermal method may be a good choice to grow the GaN single crystal at a low cost. Because if we start with Ammonothermal method, it is easy to form the polycrystalline and if we use the HVPE method to grow large crytal, it is too expensive to do so. Therefore, combining two methods can avoid the disadantages in each other and save the cost when growing.
With the rate of adoption of new energy vehicles, the manufacturing industry of power batteries is swiftly entering a rapid development trajectory. The current construction of new energy vehicles encompasses a variety of different types of batteries. This article offers a summary of the evolution of power batteries, which have grown in tandem with new energy vehicles, oscillating between decline and resurgence in conjunction with industrial advancements, and have continually optimized their performance characteristics up to the present. The main body of this text is dedicated to presenting the working principles and performance features of four primary power batteries: lead-storage batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, fuel cells, and lithium-ion batteries, and introduces their current application status and future development prospects. In conclusion, this piece identifies technical obstacles that need to be urgently overcome in the future of new energy vehicle power batteries and anticipates future development trends and emerging battery technologies in current research and development.
Due to the burning of fossil energy which is a non-renewable nature resource, it has caused many environmental problems, then the world began to face energy shortage and environmental problems. In order to solve these two problems, people have started to develop new energy sources and vigorously research new methods for energy’s efficient storage and utilization. The Li-ion battery is a research priority because it has great properties such as high specific energy and environmental friendliness, but they still need further performance improvement before it can be put into use. In this paper, the lithium-ion battery’s anode is selected as the research object to investigate the performance of carbon-based nanomaterials, silicon-based nanomaterials, and metal-based nanomaterials, and to study the actual performance and modification methods to analyze the application prospects of the materials. Improving the Li-ion battery cathode material performance can significantly improve the battery’s capacity and performance stability, speed up the process of putting lithium-ion batteries into use, and improve people's ability to store and use energy to cope with the energy crisis.
With the advent of quantum dots, it has been widely used to various fields of material science to enhance the performance. This study focuses on the potential of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to improve the performance of zinc batteries. Due to its unique photoelectric properties, high surface area and excellent conductivity, GQDs shows significant application potential in the field of battery technology. This article mainly discusses the possibility of using GQDs to improve the charge and discharge efficiency of zinc batteries, including how to improve the conductivity of the electrode, provide more active sites, and increase the energy storage capacity of the battery. The paper also identifies key challenges and limitations in this area, including the material complexity of GQDs, scalability issues, impact on battery stability, and environmental impact. Finally, the article provides some ideas on how to address these challenges and the future of GQDs applications in zinc batteries.
Formula E is a kind of racing that combines green energy use with high-speed racing. From the organization's methods and the technological achievements of recent years, it shows the potential for zero emissions of carbon dioxide. The situation now is optimal and with a clear future (actual plan published by FIA), it shows lots of events still need to improve to achieve the goal. The essay wants to achieve a balance between zero emissions and the observability of racing. So first, the essay focuses on the Formula E, its plan, and its GEN-3 racing car’s data. The essay also collects the models of the newly developed hydrogen racing car and nuclear-power racing car. Using this data, the essay concludes that it is better to only focus on Formula E recently, but there is still a larger potential for other driving systems.
Due to its high specific capacity, silicon anode has gained interest on a global scale as the anode of next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it is challenging for silicon anodes to replace graphite anodes for widespread use due to the inevitable volume expansion and SEI film development generated by silicon during the lithiation/delithiation process. Among these, the advancement of nanotechnology has sped up the development of silicon anodes. This paper reviews nanotechnology applied in the Si anode to improve the battery performance. The volume expansion of Si is effectively decreased by reducing the volume of the silicon anode in order to increase its specific surface area. Additionally, the smaller negative electrode reduces the distance traveled by lithium ions, greatly increasing the silicon negative electrode's efficiency. At present, the main silicon nano-anode materials include nanoparticles, nanowires, nanosheets, nanotubes, nanoporous materials and so on. It is hoped that this review will provide a deep prospect introduction to the nano-silicon anode. Pure silicon nanoparticles and silicon nanowires, and new nanomaterials composed of them with graphite, graphene, metals, etc.
Human technology has developed very rapidly in just a few hundred years, especially in the development of transportation and travel methods. From the very beginning, the emergence of the steam engine, to the widespread use of internal combustion engines based on fossil fuel energy, and now the popularity of electric motors. This development process not only shows the rapid development of human science and technology, but also shows people's efforts in terms of fast, convenient, rapid and energy-saving transportation. Especially in the combination of electricity and people's transportation modes: from the very beginning of electric locomotives to electric vehicles with low prices and low maintenance costs, electricity is more and more widely used in traffic life. This study will focus on the production of electricity and the drawbacks in the process of electricity production, and the mainstream use of electricity in transportation. Finally, the future of transportation electrification is prospected and considered appropriately.
Against the backdrop of escalating global carbon emissions, the emergence of electric aircraft has provided a promising avenue for addressing this pressing challenge. This article discusses the development background, definition, classification, and successful trial cases of electric aircraft, and summarizes the advantages of electric aircraft compared with traditional fossil fuel aircraft. Electric aircraft can be classified into different categories based on several factors, including their power system, purposes, and passenger-carrying capabilities. These classifications help in understanding the diverse range of electric aircraft designs and their suitability for specific purposes. And it has the advantages of emission reduction and noise reduction, economic comfort, high efficiency and reliability, which will have a positive impact on the construction of the new urban transportation system in the future. And then this article introduces the current technological development status from three aspects: electric propulsion system, body material and battery. As an environmentally friendly, efficient and sustainable aviation transportation solution, electric aircraft are receiving more and more attention and research.
The growing demand for sustainable transportation has prompted an accelerated transition toward electric vehicles (EVs) as a promising solution to mitigate the environmental impact of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. This research analyzes the key challenges and technologies associated with EVs, aiming to produce insights into this rapidly evolving field. The challenges surrounding EVs encompass various aspects, including limited driving range, lack of access to electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS), charging times for EVs, and safety considerations. To overcome these challenges, several technological advancements have emerged. Battery technology has advanced to extend the driving range per charge of an electric vehicle. Various models and algorithms to study the EVs charging station placement problem (EVCSPP) have been proposed to find the optimal location to build the charging stations. The advancement of extreme fast charging (XFC) technology and the intelligent transport system (ITS) shorten the charging time to improve the practicality of EVs adoption. Furthermore, the EVs charging standard and risk management have been introduced to ensure a secure charging system. By addressing these challenges and leveraging innovative technologies, a comprehensive and sustainable charging network can be realized, facilitating the transition towards a cleaner and greener transportation system.
The hazard of conventional fossil fuels that transportation relies on nowadays has urged the scientific community to speed up the process of diminishing the pollutants caused by daily transportation and finding an opulent energy source for its superstition. Renewable resources and hydrogen are deemed as the next generation resource. However, hydrogen is the ultimate choice for transportation for its excellent performance both in the fields of environmental protection and energy. In this article, a study on the global production of hydrogen is performed, delving into the present conditions of the hydrogen industry. The principles referred to when choosing hydrogen to be an energy source for various transportation are discussed, and a comparison between conventional fuel engines and hydrogen fuel engines is made. The existing technical problems concerning the application of hydrogen engines or hydrogen fuel cells are reviewed. Combined with the usage of technologies on hydrogen, an envisage of future clean transportation is demonstrated.
With the aviation industry's continuous development and commercial air travel's growing popularity, the emissions and pollution resulting from air transportation have experienced a rapid surge. In recent years, as environmental awareness has increased and there has been a growing reflection on the pollution caused by technology, the significance of aviation emissions has been increasingly acknowledged. This article aims to summarize achievements and challenges concerning the current state of aviation emissions and the technologies employed for their reduction. It begins by outlining the present state of aviation emissions, followed by an analysis of common pollutants emitted by the aviation sector, such as NOx, CO, and HC, as well as the mechanisms underlying greenhouse gas emissions and their associated hazards. Furthermore, the article explores several prevalent emission reduction strategies, including applying biofuels, improving combustion chambers, and optimizing flight procedures. Finally, the article provides an outlook on potential future directions for aviation emission reduction technologies.
Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of buildings, bridges, highways, and other infrastructure. With the spread of environmental preservation ideas and technological improvement, high-strength concrete materials and their sustainable hybrid design methods have been developed. A sustainable mix design approach for high-strength concrete (HSC) is critical for the construction industry as it is one of the major emitters of CO2 emissions worldwide. Fly ash concrete is an environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable building material. This paper analyzes the sustainable mixed design method of fly ash concrete by combining past scholars' research and practical experience. By analyzing the properties of fly ash, theoretical principles, and some sustainable mixed design methods, the properties (such as durability, compressive strength, etc.) of fly ash HSC are studied. It is found that the properties of fly ash HSC and traditional HSC are similar or even stronger in some aspects, which has a good improvement on the compatibility and durability of concrete. In the future, with the progress of science and technology, people will further study fly ash and HSC, and the application of fly ash in HSC will certainly get greater development, and achieve green development and sustainable development while meeting the strength of concrete.
In the ever-evolving field of communication, the optimization of antenna design and structure has garnered significant attention from professionals. Effective antenna design plays a crucial role in ensuring reliable and efficient communication systems. However, the challenge lies in overcoming the limitations imposed by current low-resolution digital-to-analog converters (DACs) on the attainment of highly efficient antenna structures. This study aims to address this issue by exploring the potential of low-resolution DACs for improving the structural design of antennas. To achieve this, we propose gradient-based and low-complexity heuristic solutions that leverage global optimization techniques. By optimizing the antenna structure using these innovative approaches, we aim to enhance the overall performance and efficiency of communication systems. The significance of this research lies in its potential to revolutionize antenna design by overcoming the constraints of low-resolution DACs. By incorporating Sigma-Delta modulation in the filter design, we anticipate significant improvements in performance when the number of transmitting antennas is comparable to the number of users. Furthermore, our investigation reveals that the application of Compressed Sensing techniques yields results that closely align with the optimal solution in scenarios where the number of transmitting antennas greatly exceeds the number of users.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are mono-dimensional carbon nanomaterials with remarkable properties. Since their discovery by Iijima, they have been found to exhibit remarkable properties in mechanical, physical, and chemical fields. However, due to their harsh synthesis conditions and limited inherent properties, the large-scale application of CNTs is challenging. With the aim of providing a reference for further research and development of carbon nanotubes, this review summarizes the currently reported methods for synthesizing carbon nanotubes, focusing on the cost-effective arc-discharge method and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which produce high-quality carbon nanotubes with stable performance. In addition, two different directions of CNT modifications are presented, namely, CNT filling technology and CNT solubility modification. Among them, the CNT filling technology can use CNTs as templates for nanodevice fabrication and test tubes for microscopic reactions. Meanwhile, solubility modification of CNTs is the key strategy to overcome its inherent limitations and expand their application fields.
Adopting low-carbon power technologies is a crucial step in the power sector's sustainable growth. Macro data statistics that are transformed based on primary energy consumption make up the majority of the carbon emissions statistics used in the current research. The applicability of such technologies is constrained, and they do not reveal the features of carbon emissions from the power system. The three widely used methods of carbon emission detection are listed by the review method in this paper. Additionally, a novel concept of combining carbon emission analysis and power system power flow calculation is discussed, the concept of power system carbon emission flow is proposed, the significance of power system carbon emission research is highlighted by combining specific data, and finally the application field and research direction of power system carbon emission are discussed. The carbon emission data released by the International Energy Agency in 2023, due to the impact of the new crown epidemic, the carbon emission in 2020 will be reduced, but it will rebound to the pre-epidemic level in 2021.
Urban microclimates directly impact the comfort of living environments and human health. This study focuses on a community within a university in Guangzhou and constructs a corresponding index system from the perspectives of regional climate analysis and architectural layout. It summarizes the key spatial elements influencing thermal comfort in living environments. The results indicate: (1) Guangzhou is located in a typical hot-summer and warm-winter region, characterized by a humid climate; (2) Using a university community in Guangzhou, Guangdong, as the research subject, a comprehensive comparison is made between simulated and empirically measured comfort evaluations. A related factor analysis is conducted to identify the key factors affecting wind efficiency. Among these, variables such as daily average temperature at Panyu Station, average wind speed at Panyu Station, and average building height 50 meters from the sampling point are found to have correlations with both simulated and measured thermal comfort indicators; (3) The analysis reveals significant differences between simulated and actual comfort, primarily due to the influences of architectural layouts, spatial arrangements, and real environmental factors.
As precious historical and cultural heritages in China, ancient architecture belongs to non-renewable resources. However, in recent years, fires in ancient buildings occurred from time to time, causing irreparable losses to China’s precious historical and cultural heritage. In order to explore the existing problems of fire safety in ancient buildings and better prevent fire accidents, this paper starts with an introduction of the structural characteristics of ancient buildings in China, and then, on the premise of combining the characteristics of geographical culture, architectural structure, and materials of Wutai Mountain temple group, the paper also analyzes the fire risk of ancient buildings. According to the practical work experience in fire protection of Mount Wutai, feasible and reasonable fire protection measures of ancient buildings are put forward, including the enhancement of fire resistance of building materials, the related equipment and system, and the safety management, so as to minimize the fire risk and fire loss and achieve the purpose of protecting gorgeous ancient building civilization.
Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) has announced a Power Unit (PU) Regulation change for its Formula 1 (F1) Championship that will become valid from the 2026 season in pursuit of carbon neutralization and a higher commercial value. The change includes a full switch to sustainable fuel and an increase in the power of the electric power output to the car’s axles but removed energy retrieving and recovery from the turbocharger. The choice to use fully sustainable fuel will lead to a richer burn. On the other hand, the increase in the hybrid system capacity will outweigh the removal of energy retrieving and recovering from the turbocharger and cause an overall increase in thermal efficiency. Also, the changes are bringing a cost reduction for PU suppliers, which is an attraction for them. The increase in electric power will also integrate the car with new driving characteristics. This paper focuses on respective reviews of the 2023 and 2026 F1 PU Technical Regulations and gives an evaluation of the process for the improvements.