Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (CONF-MCEE 2023)
Ioannis Spanopoulos, University of South Florida
Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, University of New South Wales
Niaz Ahmed, FAST-NUCES, Islamabad
With our growing need for highly efficient energy supplies, a demand for new devices with better energy conversion and storage capabilities arises. Asymmetric supercapacitors combining a pseudocapacitive and an EDLC electrode show great potential as a prospective energy storage device. The relatively broad voltage window and low cost of iron (II, III) oxide and the eminent properties of graphene nanosheets (high electrical conductivity, large surface area, etc.) make them ideal candidates for the electrode materials of supercapacitors. An asymmetric supercapacitor using iron (II, III) oxide as the anode and graphene nanosheets the cathode with an aqueous electrolyte of 3 M potassium hydroxide was proposed here. Iron (II, III) oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from FeCl3·6H2O using a hydrothermal approach. Graphene nanosheets were prepared from fine-grained graphite raw materials via Hummer’s method. The electrochemical performance of the device was characterized using a triple-electrode setup, with the electrodes being submerged in a medium of 6 M KOH. This specific asymmetrical supercapacitor shows promise as a practical foundation towards a future of more effective energy transformation and storage, such as line-filtering and signal selection, particularly due to the relative abundance and environmentally-friendly nature of its electrode materials.
The paper is divided into five parts. The first part is about the history and development of penicillin, which introduces the following section. The second part contains basic information about penicillin, the fermentation process and the preparation process. This article provides detailed information on penicillin. The third part describes the purification process of penicillin, using the papers of others to support my data. This is followed by a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of penicillin with other penicillin antibiotics. Finally, I explain the current state of penicillin and give my opinion on its future development. In my opinion, penicillin is fading, but without it we cannot invent these newer drugs to take its place. And these new antibiotics are all in the penicillin class. But as more people use penicillin, resistance will build up. This could lead to strong allergic reactions to new drugs that are also in the penicillin group. So it is hoped that in the future people will be able to invent drugs that reduce allergies to penicillin.
Earthquake and seismic-resistant concrete structures are essential components and requirements of structural design. The performance and response of concrete structures during/after the earthquake event are significant to determine the condition of the structures as well as to identify the possibility of structural failure. The main objective is to investigate the appropriate method to evaluate the impact on the structure due to earthquakes based on closed-form solutions, and to determine its differences with the results of numerical modelling. The seismic behavior of structures is required to be designed in accordance with the minimum design requirements specified in the Standard. Seismic design, where ground behavior is considered, is presented as a significant part of design analyses, and ground movement and shaking, are associated with the ground deformation which is the primary seismic load consideration for the design of plain or reinforced concrete structures. The outcome of the longitudinal analysis provided the maximum axial and bending strain which is adopted to calculate the combined strain. These results of strain are considered with the design of concrete structures against Ultimate Limit State and Service Limit State design phases. Therefore, the results evaluate the effect of seismic design on the performance of the concrete structure.
Vanillin is an important spice, widely used in food, beverage, daily necessities, medicine and other fields. In this paper, the research progress of preparation techniques chemical synthesis, plant extraction and biotransformation of vanillin was reviewed. The detection methods of vanillin such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and electrochemical method were summarized, which provide reference for the development and research of vanillin in the future.
In today ' s world, the energy crisis and environmental pollution are becoming more and more serious. As a renewable energy, solar energy has become one of the important means to meet the global energy demand. Making solar cells using volt effect is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity. In order to employ solar photovoltaic power generating technology with high efficiency and cheap cost, new solar cell research and development is being done. Among them, organic solar cells are considered as one of the promising solar photovoltaic technologies because of their light weight, simple preparation process, good flexibility and easy to achieve large area processing. While perovskite solar cells are developed in a high speed in recent year because of their simple production and long service life. The urgent problem in this field is further improve the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. In order to solve these problems, we study the structure principle and electron transport layer of solar cells, and get solutions by analyzing these problems.
Since the fossil energy is depleting day by day, the development of renewable energy is urgent. Solar energy is one of the most potential clean energy sources, and the efficiency of solar cells still has a lot of room to improve, which leads to their application scope not being wide. This paper aims to summarize the views of different scholars on ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells. Through experiments and numerical simulations, people try to overcome this problem, and they find that the material selection and surface treatment of solar cells can be optimized so that the efficiency of solar cells can be improved.
The purpose of this paper is to act as a fundamental guideline covering the starting retrosynthesis concepts and to incorporate some of the essential skills and knowledge for new starters in designing a retrosynthesis plan. The retrosynthesis approaches such as fine tuning and various group disconnections are presented before showing a full and detailed retrosynthesis analysis example.
The traditional preparation methods of polystyrene microspheres are emulsion polymerization and suspension polymerization. The diameter of the microspheres prepared by the former is generally less than 0.5 μm, and the diameter of the microspheres prepared by the latter is about several hundred microns and is difficult to control. With the continuous development of science and technology, scientists have found multiple methods to prepare micron-sized monodisperse polymer microspheres in recent years. Such as soap-free or low-soap emulsion method, dispersion polymerization method, liquid-phase synthesis method. The four preparation methods of dispersion polymerization, emulsion polymerization, liquid-phase synthesis, suspension polymerization and their respective advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail, and the prospect of synthetic application is prospected.
Based on the threat of cancer to human life and the surge in breast cancer prevalence and mortality in recent years, existing drugs and treatments remain harmful and have side effects. A nano-drug delivery platform is proposed to achieve precise drug delivery in time and space aspects. Two anti-cancer drugs were encapsulated in a nanoplatform and the synergistic effect of these two drugs was utilized to reduce the toxicity of a single drug in conventional chemotherapy and to improve the accuracy of drug delivery. Also, in-vitro and in-vivo experiments of this nanoplatform were designed, and data were collected and analysed to demonstrate the feasibility and future development prospects.
Polybutylene terephthalate and polyethylene glycol terephthalate are subjected to thermal-oxidative degradation and thermomechanical degradation during the process of melt blending, which affect the polymer structure and properties. The effect of feed properties of polyethylene glycol terephthalate and the addition of modified nanoparticles on blends are a question worthy of discussion. This paper introduced the latest development of biodegradable plastics industry as well as the applications of biodegradable plastics in fibers, daily expenses of membranes and bags, agricultural products and automobile industrial products. These biodegradable plastics included poly (lactic acid), polyhydroxyalknoates, poly (butyl⁃ enes adipate⁃co⁃terephthalate), and poly (propylene carbonate). In addition to biochemical effects, degradation also has biophysical effects, that is, after microorganisms erode the polymer, the polymer material is mechanically damaged due to the increase of cells. Therefore, biodegradation is not a single mechanism, but a compomise biophysical and biochemical synergy and mutual promotion of physical and chemical processes. So far, the mechanism of biodegradation has not been fully elucidated. This paper focuses on explaining the currently clear polymer degradation mechanism and the improvement in composition and structure, so as to offer some references for future studies.
Throughout world history, truly great nations have had to find their place in the oceans. Over 40% of the global population and most of the world's megacities are located in coastal areas. The development of proper ocean management and the implementation of marine resource construction are the core strategies for national development on the world stage. Due to the increasing needs of national development, the oceans have gradually become ecologically unbalanced after enduring human exploitation. These ecological imbalances, such as marine plastic pollution, fish overfishing, and increased climate change, will eventually return to humans and pose a serious threat to human life and health. This paper discusses the desirable and undesirable interactions between the oceans and human health and the social structure of marine resource management. Besides, this paper will propose solutions to alleviate marine ecological problems as well as promote sustainable social development based on two structural analyses. The paper concludes that the relationship between human oceans should be mutually beneficial. Oceans desire to be managed and regulated by humans for their ecosystems and do not desire to be over-exploited and polluted. Humans' desire to derive resources from the oceans to meet their spiritual and health needs while not being exposed to the risks of disasters Analysis of the socio-ecological system should be used to determine options for reducing marine ecological issues while fostering sustainable social development (SES). To put it briefly, we can now strengthen policies that prioritize the health of the ocean and people, develop trustworthy relationships among stakeholders, and encourage economic incentives that alter behavior.
Our current reliance on non-renewable sources of energy has put a strain on the limitations of our planet and its natural resources. The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess the various physical and socioeconomic factors affecting a city and its residents’ ability to effectively transition to renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy. Using climate datasets to assess the potential of both wind and solar energy for Edmonton, AB, and Columbus, OH. the researcher paired these findings with assessments of urban development, socioeconomic factors present in both cities to fully understand the current challenges we face in transitioning to renewable energy. The findings indicate that while the area of land needed to supply Edmonton with energy from 100% renewable sources would be vast (1815 km2; 6412 Wind Turbines), it would be possible to accomplish. A change as large as this cannot be made instantaneously and cities will face various challenges in this process, but it is crucial to make this transition in order to become a more sustainable society and live more harmoniously with the natural environment.
The issue of carbon emissions from building materials is an important issue in today's society and concrete buildings are one of the main contributors to carbon emissions. As a result, steel construction is very popular in modern society. However, with improvements in concrete technology, it is gradually starting to gain acceptance again. The focus of this review article is to discuss the dominant role of steel and concrete in construction. This paper adopts the method of literature analysis and reading. At the same time, the data of this study come from SteelConstruction.info (The free encyclopedia for UK steel construction information), British Constructional Steelwork Association (BCSA) and Steel Construction Institute (SCI) and The British Standard Institute. The following conclusions can be drawn: Steel structures are getting more and more attention. Steel structure and cement play an important role in construction.
This paper reviews the principle, development history and current situation of 3D food printing technology, focusing on the application of 3D printing technology in food, as well as some problems and challenges it faces. The main research methods adopted are literature review and questionnaire survey. After investigation, the application field of 3D food printing technology is very considerable, but at the same time, many problems in different aspects also hinder its popularization. As long as the obstacles are solved, 3D food printing technology is expected to become the main technology in food production in the future, and then move towards 4D technology.
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's uniqueness: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is located in a high-altitude region, with a much higher average elevation than the surrounding areas at the same latitude. It is home to the majority of the world's glaciers and permafrost in the middle and lower latitudes. Glaciers are extremely sensitive to climate change, and the unique glaciers and permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are especially vulnerable. The predecessors simulated and predicted glaciers using the distributed hydrological model and the glacier system model, and frozen soil using the accumulated temperature statistical model and the freezing number model. Simultaneously, these models have gone through a development process from low-end to high-end, which improves the accuracy and fit of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau study. This paper will compare the advantages and disadvantages of these distributed hydrological models and glacier system models using a literature review method. We discovered that the glacier model's distributed hydrological model can simulate and analyze glacier runoff, and the Glacer's system model can better classify the glacier. The freezing mumer model has made significant contributions to the dynamic change simulation of frozen soil and the estimation of its maximum thawing depth.
This paper discusses the properties, production and application of methane. It first explains how methane’s tetrahedral structure and the slightly polar C-H bond give rise to its physical properties of low melting and boiling point and its chemical properties of oxidation and substitution reaction. It then looks into the three most significant natural and artificial methods to produce methane, including biological decomposition, geological methane generation and methanation. It further identifies methane as a source of clean energy. Compared to traditional fossil fuels such as coal, Methane is more energy efficient and has a much lower carbon emission than traditional fossil fuels such as coal and cruel oil. In terms of using methane as a chemical stock to produce hydrogen, this paper focuses on the chemical mechanism of steam methane reforming (SMR) and methane pyrolysis.
In recent years, alternative energy sources(AES) including hydropower, wind power, nuclear energy, solar power, and biomass are becoming increasingly popular in China. Comprehensive evaluation of each AES is of vital importance for the further development of energy production and utilization. This study combines the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) with Multi-Criteria Decision-Making(MCDM) methods and assesses AES in China comprehensively. The results show that hydropower is the best AES in China. However, the study cannot rank the rest of the AES because different evaluation criteria weights and different MCDM methods lead to different results for the AES ranking. By analyzing China’s policies, the technical aspect should be considered first, following environmental factors, economic feasibility, and social sustainability. There are several limitations of evaluation methods and more studies need to be done.
Rising sea levels are not a direct result of climate change but rather an indirect influence. When ice melts, it releases water into the ocean, which causes it to rise. As the planet warms and glaciers continue to melt, sea levels rise and land elevations increase. As a result of all of these shifts, sea levels are increasing worldwide. Sea level change refers to the increase or decrease in sea level. Meters above a standard, like the geoid or mean sea level, are used to describe the height of the water (MSL). This research uses a literature review approach to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of the world's ocean levels. The goal is to supply some background information and recommendations for further study.
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have been considered promising candidates for solar cells in the future, and computational science tools have been widely used in the research on the structure and various properties of these perovskite materials. Researchers have also focused on finding the composition of ions which they need for specific purposes and have discovered new candidates with better performance in the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials family. In this review, notable computational ways to assist the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials research in recent years, including First Principals calculations or Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, and machine learning tools, have been summarized and discussed. The review shows various applications for First Principals and DFT calculations in this area, and also highlights the prominent potential for machine learning tools in finding new perovskite material candidates for novel solar cells.
The construction field plays an essential role in addressing global environmental issues regarding contaminants, natural resources, and energy efficiency. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the building industry produce a huge amount of global carbon emission with a percentage of 38 and this figure is growing each year. Previous studies have analyzed many factors that have a significant influence on the sustainable performance of building. Passive house is a promising type of construction project with superior energy efficiency and less emissions. The main objective of this study is to analyze the environmental sustainability of passive house compared with conventional buildings and present the development of passive house in China. This paper analyzes the characteristics of passive house in different regions according to the climate zoning of China. Results show that the passive house, as a sustainable building, has a promising trend. The outcome also indicates that China needs more mature technology and professional personnel to further promote the development of passive house.