Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mechatronics and Smart Systems

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-427-9 (Print)

    978-1-83558-428-6 (Online)

    Published Date



    Omar Marwan, Illinois Institute of Technology


  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240454

    Design and experiment of real-time reseeding system for transversal sugarcane planter with seeds pre-cutting

    The issue of sugarcane seed leakage is one of the practical challenges encountered in the current utilization of sugarcane planting machinery, directly leading to reduced yields in sugarcane fields. This paper addresses the problem of seed leakage in the process of transverse planting of pre-cut sugarcane using theoretical analysis, modeling, simulation, and experimental research. It designs a real-time reseeding system for pre-cut sugarcane transverse planting machines, composed of seed boxes, backup seed rollers, reseeding rollers, and an electronic control system. The real-time reseeding system detects seed leakage on the planting machine’s seeding chain to control the reseeding mechanism, filling the gaps in the seeding chain with sugarcane seeds. During experimentation, the real-time reseeding system achieved a maximum reduction of seed leakage by 6% in the seeding chain, effectively addressing the issue of seed leakage in pre-cut sugarcane transverse planting machines.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240459

    Overview of the development of chip manufacturing technology

    With the rapid progress of modern science and technology, the manufacturing process of chips, which serves as the core of microelectronics technology, plays a crucial role in both producing and improving electronic products. With the advancement of science and technology and the continuous growth of market demand, the research and development of the chip manufacturing process has become more and more critical. This paper explores the historical development, essential technologies, and prospects related to chip manufacturing. It provides a comprehensive understanding of this field through six sections including an introduction, overview of the process, application areas, key technologies, future trends, and concluding remarks. This study offers valuable guidance and reference for related industries and research fields. It is found that the chip process has an important position and broad application prospects in the field of modern science and technology. In the future, chip manufacturing processes will move towards smaller feature sizes. Future chip manufacturing processes will pay more attention to process optimization, and improve the process flow to reduce loss and waste, in order to improve the efficiency and reliability of chip production.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240461

    Comparison and analysis of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the excitation current of constant speed AC motor

    With the wide application of motor in industry, transportation, home appliances and other fields, the performance requirements of motor are getting higher and higher, in which the excitation current of constant speed AC motor is one of its important performance indicators. Although the traditional method based on physical model can calculate the motor excitation current accurately, it needs a lot of physical parameters and experimental data, which is expensive and difficult to popularize. Therefore, the research of predicting the excitation current of constant speed AC motor based on machine learning algorithm has important practical significance. Divide the data set into the training set and the test set in a 7:3 ratio. Decision tree regression model, Random forest regression model, adaboost regression model, Gradient lifting tree regression model, ExtraTrees regression model, CatBoost regression model and K nearest are used respectively neighbor regression model was trained and the evaluation indexes MSE, RMSE, MAE, MAPE and R2of the model were calculated. According to the results of model evaluation parameters, the Gradient lifting tree model had the best prediction effect, and its MSE reached 0.002. The adaboost model has the second best performance, and its MSE reaches 0.055. The performance of CatBoost, Decision tree and CatBoost is average, while the performance of K nearest neighbor is the worst, with an MSE of 33.205. This paper compares five different models and analyzes the reasons why they perform well. In practical application, it is necessary to select the appropriate model according to the specific problem, and adjust and optimize it to achieve better performance.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240464

    The development history and applications of graphic processing unit and graphics card

    Concepts like artificial intelligence (AI) and cryptocurrency have become nowadays hot spots. Graphics cards stand as one of the most important hardware components behind technologies like cryptocurrency mining and artificial intelligence. The rapid advancement of these projects relies on the immense computational power provided by graphics cards. Therefore, an analysis of the development history of graphic cards is essential. This paper primarily investigates the evolutionary journey and application scenarios of graphics cards since the last century. This paper conducts a relevant analysis by collecting historical product information and financial data from leading graphics card manufacturers like NVIDIA, Advanced Micro Devices, and others. This paper finds that the primary applications of graphics cards are currently well-established, and future expansions into other fields would likely build upon existing technologies rather than introducing entirely new ones, like artificial intelligence. However, the future of technology is unpredictable, and making absolute predictions is challenging.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240465

    A low-latency and energy-efficient 4-bit absolute value detector for brain-machine interface applications

    This research article aims to develop a 4-bit absolute value detector, balancing speed and power efficiency, with potential applications in Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) systems. The detector outputs a binary signal, indicating whether the absolute value of the input surpasses a predefined threshold. The design integrates two primary modules: an absolute value calculator and a comparator. Initially, the study focuses on enhancing the architecture of a multiplexer-based adder for absolute value calculation and selecting an efficient comparator structure, emphasizing least significant bit comparison. Further, the implementation of logic gates using Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is elaborated. The research concludes by assessing the minimum delay achievable in the critical path, quantified at 74.22 units, and investigating strategies to minimize energy consumption. This is achieved by adjusting gate dimensions and supply voltage, aiming for a delay 1.5 times the minimum. The energy expenditure of the critical path is extrapolated to estimate the overall circuit consumption. The findings demonstrate that, at 1.5 times the minimal delay, the circuit achieves a maximum energy savings of 62.8% with a supply voltage of 0.815V.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240468

    Advancements and future prospects of Gallium Nitride (GaN) in semiconductor technology

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a semiconductor material distinguished by its exceptional attributes and potential for diverse applications. Characterized by high electron mobility, substantial saturation drift velocity, an extensive forbidden energy band, and remarkable thermal stability, GaN demonstrates versatility in various electronic applications. These include high-frequency power amplifiers, luminous high-brightness Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), and lasers. Advancements in synthesis techniques, such as gas-phase epitaxy, hydrothermal, and solution methods, have facilitated the production of high-quality GaN thin films. The research on GaN’s physical properties encompasses an in-depth analysis of its structure, crystallographic defects, and optical characteristics, alongside investigations into the performance of optoelectronic devices. Future research trajectories are oriented towards developing scalable synthesis methodologies, designing and optimizing energy-efficient devices, and enhancing sustainable and eco-friendly attributes. Nonetheless, challenges persist in the realms of cost efficiency and reliability of GaN materials, necessitating further refinement in design and processing techniques and broadening the spectrum of potential applications. With no doubt, GaN materials exhibit significant potential for future development and are poised to assume a crucial role in the advancement of science and technology.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240469

    Clairvoyance — Vision-impaired friendly assistive mobile device

    Our design is a wearable device that assists the visually impaired to move. Our goal is to enable visually impaired people to travel alone after wearing our designs, helping them reduce the risks they may face when walking out alone. After several iterations of design ideas, our final design mainly relies on two webcams, Jetson TX2 Development board, and six vibrators. These components are installed on a sports vest and a belt. We decided to use visual systems and GPS to predict the trajectory of people and objects, and help users identify the direction of obstacles and achieve the purpose of obstacle avoidance through vibrators at different positions.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240470

    Comparative analysis of working principles and applications of MOSFET and HEMT

    Semiconductor materials are currently one of the most core materials in the world’s high-tech industry, and the research and development of semiconductor materials is related to the improvement of human technological level. This paper presents a comparative study of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) and High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), two pivotal components in electrical engineering, each with unique characteristics and functions. Despite structural similarities, MOSFETs and HEMTs differ significantly in operation and conduction methods. MOSFETs rely on an inversion layer formed at the semiconductor-oxide interface, controlled by gate voltage, for electron conduction. Conversely, HEMTs utilize a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface of materials like Gallium Nitride and Aluminum Gallium Nitride, offering high electron mobility crucial for performance. Both share similar I-V characteristics but differ in performance under various conditions. MOSFETs are cost-effective, ideal for mass production and general applications, while HEMTs excel in stability and performance in extreme conditions, suitable for high-performance needs. This study underscores the importance of selecting the right component based on application-specific requirements, highlighting MOSFETs for cost-efficiency and HEMTs for challenging environments. This article will provide some guidance for the research of MOSFET and HEMT.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240471

    Advancements in driver fatigue detection: A comprehensive analysis of eye movement and facial feature approaches

    This article goes into sophisticated tiredness detection methods that make use of computer vision algorithms, including the Eye Movement and Facial Feature approaches. Eye movement analysis, which emphasizes blink frequency, Scanning speed, and gaze length, excels in tasks requiring sustained visual attention, which is critical in high-attention vocations. Facial Feature detection, on the other hand, monitors changes in expressions, muscle activity, and emotions, providing flexibility across a wide range of settings. Eye movement enables accurate indications, real-time responsiveness, and task-specific precision, which is especially important in high-attention occupations. Facial Feature is ideal for a variety of scenarios since it gives complete assessments, flexibility, contextual analysis, and non-intrusiveness. Case examples show how eye-tracking and convolutional neural networks may be used to improve accuracy. This study helps to weariness management by detailing the advantages and disadvantages of Eye Movement and Facial Feature methods. Given the pervasiveness of fatigue, knowing these sensing systems is critical for maintaining safety, productivity, and general well-being in a variety of professional and everyday life scenarios.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240472

    Machinery and logistics: Development trends and prospects of automated warehouse technology

    The ongoing evolution of the logistics industry drives a significant shift towards intelligent warehouse systems, merging mechanical devices with advanced control systems. This study delves deeply into this fusion, striving to elevate cargo handling efficiency, reduce reliance on manual labor, and lower error rates. Through an exhaustive examination of contemporary warehouse models as well as key technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence-driven automation, robotics, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and specific industry applications, this research emphasizes the pivotal role of intelligent warehouse systems in transforming logistics. From real-time tracking to predictive maintenance and streamlined operations, these systems leverage cutting-edge technology, offering new optimization avenues across warehouse functions. Additionally, it showcases successful industry adoptions in sectors such as e-commerce, manufacturing, retail, and healthcare, spotlighting tangible benefits, and versatile applications. Despite acknowledging challenges like initial investment costs and integration complexities, this research anticipates future trends in Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and data analytics, projecting further advancements in intelligent warehouse systems. Ultimately, it reveals the profound impact of technology on logistics, promising enhanced efficiency, reduced errors, and optimized warehouse management practices in a seamlessly integrated technological future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240474

    A [92.4] FO4(1V), [53.71] Eu(1V) 4-bit absolute-value detector

    With the development of modern computers, the integration of chips is getting higher and higher, and as the computing power increases, the energy consumption of chips is also increasing. Therefore, designing and optimizing low-latency and low-energy chips are the goals of many researchers today. At the same time, 4-bit absolute value detector are one of the most basic and important circuits for data storage and processing in chips. This paper designs a 4-bit absolute value detector circuit using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors that can take the absolute value of the input 4-bit signed number and compare it with the threshold value. And it includes the design of its absolute value conversion module and comparator module. By optimizing the circuit structure, the number of logic gates is reduced. By calculating the minimum delay on the critical path, logic gate size and other parameters, the power consumption of the circuit is reduced by adjusting the delay. In conclusion, this paper research can help further optimize the development of chip design industry.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240475

    Advancements in InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared detectors: Material innovations and optimization techniques

    This paper presents a detailed study of the advancements in InAs/GaSb Superlattice (SL) infrared detectors, highlighting the significant progress made in material development and optimization techniques. The research begins with an overview of the historical developments, particularly the emergence of Tape InAs/GaSb binary II superlattice, which has revolutionized Third-Generation Infrared Focal Plane Arrays. A key focus is the optimization of fabrication processes, including temperature control and the V/III beam flux ratio, which are critical for enhancing the quality and efficiency of SL infrared detectors. The paper also explores the selection of superlattice interfaces, crucial for reducing strain and improving infrared absorption. Looking ahead, the study outlines future directions for SL infrared detectors, such as the exploration of new materials, incorporation of quantum well technology, and advancements in miniaturization and integration techniques. These developments aim to increase the stability, sensitivity, and overall performance of infrared detectors.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240476

    Research on sensing recognition principle and motion control of industrial robot

    In recent years, with the continuous development of science and technology and the pursuit of production efficiency, robots are more and more widely used in industrial production. Robot is a new production tool in industrial production. This paper mainly studies the sensing and recognition technology of industrial robots and their motion control principle. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the main research directions and important design methods of industrial robots. The research methods used in this paper are literature analysis, case analysis, and review. The research object is the sensing and recognition function of the industrial robot itself, as well as its motion and control parts. The main tools used in the study are various literature database websites, and the experimental data are also extracted from the papers in the database. This paper finds that the key research of industrial robots today is to make their recognition function powerful and strive to optimize their motion ability.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240477

    Target tracking techniques for multi-robot systems: Review on the state-of-the-art

    The field of target tracking has long been a focal point in robotics research, gaining particular prominence in the realm of multi-robot systems. Target tracking has extensive applications in diverse areas such as surveillance, search and rescue operations, and environmental detection. This paper presents an exhaustive review of the latest target tracking methodologies employed in multi-robot systems, with an emphasis on scenarios featuring both abundant and limited information availability. The review particularly addresses the challenges posed by conditions including target occlusion (partial or total), uncertainties in robots’ positional data, and limitations in sensory and communicative functions. This scholarly piece synthesizes literature sourced from IEEE and Springer publications, spanning the period from 2019 to 2023. This temporal scope ensures a focus on contemporary and pertinent research outcomes. The findings of this paper indicate a significant evolution in the sophistication of target tracking techniques, particularly in complex operational scenarios. These advancements signify a notable maturation in the capabilities of multi-robot systems to efficiently handle intricate and varied tasks.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240478

    Optimizing integrated circuits: Design and analysis of an efficient 4-bit absolute-value detector

    Amidst rapid advancements in the realm of computer science, integrated circuits emerge as pivotal to technological progression, influencing a diverse range of sectors significantly. This study delves into a 4-bit absolute-value detector, a crucial tool in signal detection, which evaluates the magnitude of a given input’s absolute value against a predetermined threshold and conveys the outcome. The paper presents an innovative, optimized design for a 4-bit absolute-value detector, employing CMOS technology. A novel, efficient 3-bit adder is developed and incorporated in the circuit to minimize gate delay and energy usage. By fine-tuning the applied voltage (Vdd) and implementing gate sizing, the delay is maintained at approximately 1.5 times the minimum possible delay, while ensuring low power consumption. The defined parameters for this detector are 145.05 FO4 (0.82V) and 7.23C Eu (0.82V). The design methodologies and strategic insights shared in this paper form a foundational basis for future enhancements in signal processing technologies, potentially driving these fields towards a path of accelerated, robust, and sustainable growth.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240479

    Analysis of femur injury of vehicle frontal collision based on knee mapping test

    In order to study the risk of dummy knee injuries in frontal collisions of automobiles, by analyzing a large number of knee mapping test data, the collision waveform intensity and the dummy knee risk situation were classified and counted. The influence laws of different characteristic risk points, collision speeds, and belt forces on femur loads were investigated. The results show that the distribution of OLC values at 50km/h is the largest in the range of 29-32g. The crash waveforms of both models are enhanced after speeding up, but the form of enhancement is different.The position where the driver is most likely to become a risk point is the steering column adjustment switch and the steering column cover bolts and brackets. The passenger seat is the transition area of the harder interior trim, and the highest risk point for femur loads exceeding the limit is the steering column adjustment switch. The highest median femur loads under different risk points is the hard corner of the central control screen. The femur loads increases with the increase of collision speed and decreases with the increase of seat belt tension.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240482

    Electrical characteristics and reliability of gallium oxide devices study via TCAD simulation

    As the Ga2O3 MOSFET is difficult to prepare and less studied, the use of computers to simulate the device is a great help in research. This paper introduces how to use Silvaco TCAD to simulate Ga2O3 MOSFET, and explores its role in the study of the electrical characteristics and reliability of Ga2O3 MOSFET. It is found that the field plate, medium and fin shape of the device can affect the breakdown voltage and on-resistance respectively, and the reliability of the self-heating effect and switching loss is studied. These experiments prove that TCAD has strong customizability, can accurately simulate the performance of the component, has a guiding role in the experiment and can improve the experiment efficiency. This facilitates further optimization of the electrical characteristics and reliability of Ga2O3 MOSFETs through modification of the device structure, resulting in lower power consumption, heat generation and better durability of electrical devices equipped with Ga2O3 MOSFETs.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240483

    A markov chain based photovoltaic power simulation method

    Photovoltaic power generation has volatility and randomness, which affects the safety and reliability of the power system. In order to achieve accurate simulation of photovoltaic output, this paper proposes a photovoltaic power timing simulation method based on rolling sampled Markov chain model. Firstly, establish a photovoltaic output model and analyze the actual output characteristics; Then, based on the first-order Markov chain model, the relationship between adjacent days is considered, and a multistate transition probability matrix is established to construct an annual time series output model; Finally, based on the annual output data of a photovoltaic power station and historical meteorological monitoring data, an example is simulated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240486

    Current status and future trends in lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots

    The aging population in China is steadily increasing, accompanied by a rising incidence of stroke. Therefore, for patients experiencing lower limb movement disorders due to factors such as spinal cord injuries and brain damage, the use of lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots is crucial for precise rehabilitation in the early stages of injury. There is an urgent need to optimize rehabilitation strategies during the recovery process. Worn on the lower limbs, exoskeleton robots facilitate rehabilitation by engaging in specific training, establishing new synapses in the patient’s brain, and ultimately achieving therapeutic goals. In recent years, various companies, universities, and research institutions worldwide, including Japan’s HAL, Israel’s ReWalk, DaiAi Robotics, and Shenzhen MaiBu Robotics, have made significant advancements. These products contribute to the convenience of users’ daily lives and rehabilitation training. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current state of research on lower limb exoskeleton robots, incorporating domestic and international literature, and offers insights into future development trends.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-23 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/65/20240487

    A systematic analysis of wide band gap semiconductor used in power electronics

    In recent years, the field of power electronics has witnessed a significant shift towards the adoption of wide bandgap (WBG) materials, marking a pivotal change in the design and efficiency of electronic devices. This paper presents a comprehensive systematic analysis of wide bandgap materials and their semiconductor applications in power electronics. Initially, the paper provides essential background information, elucidating the emerging importance of WBG materials in modern electronics. It then delves into various types of wide bandgap semiconductors, examining their fundamental operating principles and theoretical underpinnings. Subsequent sections of the paper highlight the advantages of using wide bandgap semiconductors, including their superior performance and efficiency benefits. The discussion extends to practical implementations, showcasing several existing applications of wide bandgap semiconductors in diverse power electronics scenarios. Additionally, this paper critically addresses the prevailing challenges and obstacles encountered in the application and manufacturing processes of these materials. Moreover, it offers insightful predictions about the future trajectory and potential advancements in wide bandgap device technology. The paper culminates with a concise conclusion summarizing the impact and prospects of wide bandgap devices in the realm of power electronics.

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