Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Functional Materials and Civil Engineering

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-067-7 (Print)

    978-1-83558-068-4 (Online)

    Published Date



    Bhupesh Kumar, University of St Andrews


  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230601

    Research status and prospect of electrode materials for lithium-ion battery

    The lithium-ion battery has become one of the most widely used green energy sources, and the materials used in its electrodes have become a research hotspot. There are many different types of electrode materials, and negative electrode materials have developed to a higher level of perfection and maturity than positive electrode materials. Enhancing the electrochemical capabilities of positive electrode materials is therefore crucial. In addition to exploring and choosing the preparation or modification methods of various materials, this study describes the positive and negative electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries. Among the negative electrode materials, Li4Ti5O12 is beneficial to maintain the stability of the battery structure, and the chemical vapor deposition method is the best way to prepare nitrogen-doped graphene materials. Doping and coating modifications for positive electrode materials can offer a smoother mobile route for lithium ions, which can enhance the cathode material’s cycling performance. This paper’s study, summary, and outlook on electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries can aid those researchers in developing a more thorough understanding of electrode materials. Also, it can be advantageous for the growth of associated follow-up research projects and the expansion of the lithium battery market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230602

    Application of nanomaterials in new energy batteries

    With the rapid development of new energy battery field, the repeated charge and discharge capacity and electric energy storage of battery are the key directions of research. Therefore, the selection standards of electrode materials and electrolyte are continuously improved, ordinary battery materials can no longer meet the needs of development. As a new type of material, nanomaterials have been widely used in many industries due to their special structure and properties. Similarly, nanomaterials also provide new possibilities for the development of new energy batteries. This paper mainly explores the different applications of nanomaterials in new energy batteries, focusing on the basic structural properties and preparation methods of nanomaterials, as well as the applications of different nanomaterials in the positive and negative materials of new energy batteries, and forecasts the future development direction of this industry. This paper is expected to provide ideas for the research of nanomaterials and new energy batteries, and promote the national research on new batteries.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230603

    Environment impacts and recycling methods of spent lithium-ion batteries

    As the lithium-ion battery market continues to expand so far, the number of spent lithium-ion batteries continue to increase, and its impact on the environment cannot be ignored. It is of great necessity to find out a scientific and effective process to recycle spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Starting from the specific pollution of each part of LIBs to the environment, this paper expounds the recycling methods and emerging technologies of cathode materials with the largest proportion and the highest economic value. This paper believes that from the pre-treatment of spent LIBs, and then goes through whether it is thermometallurgy, hydrometallurgy or direct regeneration, each step of recovery process has its own use scenarios. There are still certain problems in industrial applications, recovery rate, safety, secondary pollution and other aspects. Some technologies such as bio-leaching are yet to be developed and are expected to be widely used in the near future. This paper looks forward to a more comprehensive development and breakthrough in the recycling technology of LIBs in the future, rather than being limited to cathode materials.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230604

    High-value recycling and biodegradation of polyolefin materials

    The pollution of plastic materials has seriously affected global environmental problems. Polyolefin materials are widely used as raw materials for plastics. This is due to their practical physical properties and low cost. However, there are major challenges in the disposal of waste polyolefin materials. Recycling and degradation have emerged as the two main approaches for the treatment of plastic waste today. Through a comprehensive literature analysis and review of methods, this paper provides an in-depth study of recycling and biodegradation of polyolefin materials. The study is based on a detailed search of several papers through Google Scholar in order to provide valuable insights into the different methods that are used for the recycling and biodegradation of polyolefins. The review summarizes the most effective technologies for recycling and biodegradation, while highlighting recent advances and future directions in the field. In particular, the research has focused on two main approaches: closed-loop recycling and chemical recovery. The latter technology is aimed at non-polluting biodegradation, which has become an increasingly important topic of interest for the scientific community. Given the urgency of the environmental challenges posed by polyolefins, the development of efficient and sustainable recycling and degradation methods is essential to create a circular economy and ensure a sustainable future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230605

    Application of nanomaterials in lithium-sulfur batteries and lithium-air batteries

    Because of its high voltage, high specific energy, and other good qualities, lithium-ion batteries have recently become one of the most popular studies. In the context of nanomaterials, this research investigates the function of nanomaterials in the application of lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries. In addition to examining the classification, benefits and drawbacks, uses and advances of nanomaterials, this essay also examines the fundamentals of two batteries, as well as the uses of nanomaterials in both types of batteries. The results show that nanomaterials have a very large surface area and a sudden change in material properties because of their arrival at the nanoscale, and have very good mechanical and optical properties, which have a very good contribution to the performance of the batteries. However, it was discovered that nanomaterials in lithium-ion battery applications still have issues, such as high cost and challenging synthesis procedures, through the investigation of several nanomaterials in two batteries. In addition to offering fresh perspectives for society, this study seeks to better understand the economic and safety issues associated with two batteries used in practical production.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230608

    Research on the application of nanomaterials in new energy batteries and future development prospects

    Nowadays, new energy batteries and nanomaterials are one of the main areas of future development worldwide. This paper introduces nanomaterials and new energy batteries and talks about the application of nanomaterials in new energy batteries and their future directions. Nanomaterials can bring human technology to a new level and bring many new functions to objects. It can be objected that are lighter, stronger, and higher. Because of the smaller surface area, the product made by nanomaterials is more stable. And they have higher sensitivity, as well. However, they have disadvantages too, such as pollution, and poor nanotechnology humans controlled. But in any case, nanomaterial plays a vital role in the technological development of mankind. A new energy battery is also one of the future development goals of mankind, it is an energy-saving battery that can reduce the pollution of the environment. But poor charging speed and poor continuity are its weaknesses. However, it does not stop it from gradually replacing the original traditional battery and becoming the mainstream battery in the future. Nanomaterials play a key role in improving new energy batteries improving the stability of batteries, accelerating battery charging, and so on. It can help people to understand nanomaterials and new energy batteries and their applications. It can also help to understand their future research directions and the market development of nanomaterials and new energy batteries.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230609

    Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods used for condition assessment of concrete structures

    As an integral part of the construction industry, concrete is an important part of the building materials industry, as well as an important material for infrastructure and engineering construction projects. It is widely used in various industries. In recent years, with the improvement of the quality awareness of the whole people, the engineering quality inspection has also received more attention. The previous concrete quality inspection methods have different degrees of damage to the original structure. This paper focuses on the state of concrete structure and its detection method, and introduces the EDN technology. At the same time, through comparison, practical experiment, theoretical research and other research methods to describe EDN technology. Based on the research results, it is concluded that ECN technology can provide a more comprehensive concrete quality report, which is beneficial to the maintenance, repair and restoration of Bridges and old buildings, and help engineers use.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230611

    Review of innovations in low-power flip-flops based on the development of innovative logic gates

    Integrated circuits have advanced quickly alongside the semiconductor industry's tremendous growth. The primary design considerations for each circuit in a VLSI data path are minimization of area and power consumption. As a very important logic unit in the integrated circuit, reducing the flip-flop's power consumption is of great significance for improving the performance of the whole circuit. There are many ways to reduce the power consumption of the flip-flop. This paper reviews several new low-power flip-flop designs using methods to improve the logic structure of flip-flops and their logic gates, including a reversible flip-flop design with reversible gates, a flip-flop design with memristors, and a sense amplifier-based flip-flop. The analysis shows that all three options for improving the logic gate can reduce the power consumption of the flip-flops and also have a positive effect on reducing the size of the device.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230612

    Preparation and application of lithium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries

    With the progress of the times and the development of technology, there are more and more types of batteries, and the application of batteries in life is more and more extensive. In recent years, due to the promotion and popularity of electric vehicles, lithium batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and nickel-metal hydride batteries have gradually moved from the laboratory to everyone's life. This paper discusses the three types of batteries used today and the preparation methods, advantages and disadvantages, applications, and prospects of these three types of batteries. Lithium battery is mainly composed of lithium, with more active chemical properties, and has become the mainstream of the world today; the positive active ingredient of the nickel-cadmium battery is predominantly made of nickel, the negative active ingredient is predominantly made of cadmium, an alkaline battery, the current common battery device, commonly used in small equipment; nickel-hydrogen batteries are improved from nickel-cadmium batteries, which can absorb hydrogen metal instead of cadmium, compared to lithium batteries are safer It is safer than lithium battery. Batteries have positive and negative poles, and this paper also describes the manufacturing methods of positive and negative poles of the three types of batteries. The widespread application and immense market demand for lithium-ion batteries, Nickel-hydrogen (NiMH) batteries, and Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries have significant implications for scientific progress and economic prosperity. Therefore, research efforts directed toward high-performance lithium-ion, NiMH, and NiCd batteries hold tremendous scientific and economic value.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230613

    Application of nanotechnology in lithium titanate batteries

    With the introduction of dual carbon policy and the development of new energy industry, new energy batteries play a pillar role in the whole industry. However, the new energy batteries made in the context of traditional cathode materials often have many defects and cannot meet the demand. This study introduces nanotechnology, lithium titanate batteries and their integrated applications. Among them, nanofabrication technology, as an emerging technology, can be used to dope new particles to modify the conventional lithium titanate to improve its own shortcomings of insufficient conductivity of a single material. The significance of this thesis is to compare each technique and each material, and to propose new experimental solutions based on the existing research results.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230614

    The development of carbon fiber epoxy resin composite material and its applications in aerospace

    In recent years, carbon composite materials are used more and more widely, and the technology is more and more mature. Among the carbon fiber composites, one material has become an important structural material in the aerospace field, which is carbon fiber epoxy resin composite material (CFERCM). Since the advent of CFERCM, it has been developed into an ideal structural material because of its high strength, light weight, corrosion resistance, high modulus and so on. In order to have a better understanding of the properties and applications of CFERCM, this paper mainly uses research method of review, systematically summarizes the development and applications in the field of aerospace and aviation to display the relationship between its properties and applications, showing the characteristic of CFERCM. As for the development, it mainly includes the history, preparation and properties of CFERCM. After that, this paper introduces two main fields of application, which are aerospace and aviation. Finally, some prospects of CFERCM in the future are presented and suggested for further studies. This paper concludes that CFERCM is a new, relatively simple to prepare, excellent structural material, it is widely used, especially in the field of aerospace.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230615

    Conventional usages and innovation of microneedles

    Nowadays, microneedle array patches (MAPs) are playing a much more role in solving medical, chemistry and biology problems and giving more incentives to these fields. This paper made a summary of traditionally practical value of MAPs since its invention and gave some vivid and realistic examples of creativity in the field of microneedle usage in order to get a fuller picture of microneedle and related newest applications. Relevant information and details are collected from the latest papers and reports, and in this way can the author draw conclusions accurately and critically. According to what is mentioned in the paper, it is time to pay more attention to the different advantages of MAPs while regarding it as a kind of effective drug-releasing tool. At the end of the paper, the author envisioned some possible usages of microneedles and enlightened readers to find new ways to make full use of different MAPs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230616

    A review on biodegradable polymer: Shortcomings, developments, and future direction

    With the continuous progress and development of the world's economy and science, people's awareness of environmental protection has gradually increased. Polymer materials have brought great convenience to modern people's daily life and work, and their application fields are becoming wider. However, on the one hand, the comprehensive application of polymer materials has greatly improved our level of people's daily life, and on the other hand, it also brings a certain pollution to the environment. Because some traditional polymer composites can not degrade immediately, there may be a big problem of pollution and emission. Therefore, how to develop a biodegradable polymer material has become a research hotspot. This paper reviewed the current market share of biodegradable polymers, the classification of current biodegradable polymers, and the applications of biodegradable polymers. By providing that information, this paper aims to help understand the big picture of biodegradable polymers and contribute to their future developments.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230618

    Application and development prospects of nanomaterials in multiple fields

    Nanomaterials have unique structures and characteristics that allow them to exhibit far superior or new properties in many aspects than conventional materials. With the continuous progress in materials science research, the manufacturing and processing technologies of nanomaterials have also been fully developed in recent years. Nanomaterials of different types, structures, and compositions have been applied in many fields, such as construction, energy, environmental protection, and electronics, providing new ideas for solving many problems. In this paper, we first review the basic definition and properties of nanomaterials, then analyze and discuss the cases of nanomaterials already in use or promising design solutions in medicine, solar energy and textiles. This paper also summarize their advantages and manufacturing difficulties. All of these areas have mature nanomaterial products in use, and they provide ideas for further research and development in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230619

    Advances in high entropy doping of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnet solid electrolyte: Properties and feasibility analysis

    It is discovered that solid electrolytes have a lower ionic conductivity than liquid electrolytes. Such situations have drawn significant attention in the scientific fields, and various practical solutions have been devised to address them. Doping is frequently employed to increase ionic conductivity to address the intrinsic flaws in solid electrolytes. Most recently, introducing a high-entropy appliance to the doping in the Li7La3Zr2O12(LLZO) garnet structure was considered to be a novel method for the performance enhancement of solid electrolytes. This paper reviewed the state-of-the-art research in the field of high-entropy solid electrolytes. The basic structure of LLZO and migration ways of Li-ions were discussed in detail. The latest approaches involving the use of high-entropy doping were introduced. In addition, the working mechanisms of the high-entropy appliance to improve the ionic conductivity were discussed. Special attention was paid to the practical high-entropy doping system. The effects of structure distortion on the ionic conductive properties such as the site energy overlapping were assessed. Finally, the outlook of the development of high-entropy doping systems was discussed. It can be concluded that all future problems related to atomic and ion diffusion can be started from this result and discussed in the next step.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230620

    The impact of COVID-19 on civil engineering

    This passage is mainly about analyzing the civil engineering which has been hugely affected and forced to slow down during COVID-19 under Chinese government strict restriction and quarantine policy. It focusses on the impact of COVID-19 and the Chinese policy to civil engineering and construction and try to find some solutions for future same situation. It includes several essential parts in civil engineering, such as cost management, need assessment, design of the system, monitoring of users of civil system and End-of-Life Phase. It also uses the data and information during COVID-19 to find some solutions for the lack of labor force and difficulty in operations. Also, in this passage, it analyzes all this important phase’s availability and efficiency in the civil engineering one by one under the strict policy of COVID-19 in China. Moreover, it also includes some solutions to the current situation of civil engineering design in order to improve the efficiency and quality of the civil engineering.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230621

    The modern preparation of menthol and the burgeoning dual catalyst system - The three different synthesis pathways and one significant improvement of menthol

    This paper will mainly focus on the modern preparation pathway of menthol, which involves Takasago and BASF, these two traditional pathways. Besides, the unique dual catalyst system will also be talked about in this work. This paper will give the introduction of them, their advantages and disadvantages, moreover, their actual application will also be brought to notice. Menthol is a salient chemical substance that plays an important role in perfume manufacture, and it is actually the source of the special and pleasant smell of many herbs, especially mint. In addition, menthol is also a fundamental raw material in many parts of chemical synthesis due to its unique structure. This research can give summative conclusions about this basic but noteworthy domain.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230622

    Carbon emission assessment during construction phase based on building information model (BIM) and life cycle assessment (LCA)

    In recent decades, the carbon emissions from building structures have posed a huge threat to the environment and to some extent contributed to global warming. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most commonly used carbon emission assessment technique. However, this is a challenging task as the amount of data for a single material is enormous and difficult to process. A new method utilizing the latest computer technology has been proposed. This paper uses Building Information Model (BIM) and Revit software to establish a three-dimensional model of the structure. BIM can export and imply material information based on other platforms. This makes it possible to link BIM tools with lifecycle assessment by defining environmental data for each unit in the model. The entire process is divided into six stages. This article focuses on the calculation of carbon emissions during the construction phase and introduces a method that helps with early structural decision-making. Through case studies of existing buildings, the quantity of materials used in the building was analyzed, and the relationship between pre construction carbon emission factors and material quantity was solved.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230623

    Current development and future prospects of protein hydrogels

    Protein hydrogels are a class of soft biomaterials that have attracted extensive attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in biomedicine in recent years. This paper explores the promise of protein hydrogels, discussing their advantages, limitations, and future prospects. The biocompatibility, high water content, and tunable mechanical properties of protein hydrogelsmake them appropriate for a variety of uses, including 3D bioprinting, drug delivery, wound healing, and biosensors. However, challenges such as stability and biodegradation, reproducibility and scalability, clinical translation, and a lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action must be addressed to fully realize their potential. The purpose of this paper is to understand the current development status and difficulties of protein hydrogels and to speculate on their future development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/23/20230624

    Thermodynamic model of hydrogen-based fuel cell

    The contemporary scholarly treatise expatiates on a lofty and refined mathematical schema of a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell seamlessly integrated into the Matlab Simulink milieu. The central aim of this model is to transcend the short descriptions of fuel cell functioning using parameters that denote certain physical connotations in an all-embracing manner. With minimal computational overhead, it could be extended to simulate an entire stack of fuel cells within the purview of an energetic system. The performance of each cell and its response to variations in pressure, temperature, humidity, and partial pressure of reactants are scrutinized with the utmost care, and the paramountcy of membrane hydration is exposed.

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