Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-401-9 (Print)

    978-1-83558-402-6 (Online)

    Published Date



    Seyed Ghaffar, University of Birmingham


  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240678

    Development Status and Future Prospects of Photovoltaic Cells

    With the rapid development of social economy, the consumption of conventional energy is growing at an amazing rate. The energy shortage crisis and the environmental problems brought by conventional energy will seriously restrict social development and affect the daily lives of residents. Therefore, paying attention to the creation and use of new energy, protecting the environment, improving efficiency, controlling the emission of pollutants and realizing sustainable development have become the main research topics in the new era of the energy sector. Photovoltaic energy has the advantages of economic energy saving, green environmental protection, wide application and sustainability, and is an ideal new energy, that has been developed to the third generation. This paper mainly combs the development process of photovoltaic technology, summarizes the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of the third generation of photovoltaic technology, analyzes the current situation and prospects of photovoltaic technology development, and analyzes the problems and challenges faced. This research finds that as the economy and technology continue to advance, photovoltaic cell technology is developing rapidly, and the application cost is constantly reduced. The photovoltaic cell industry will get more attention and better development, and its application prospect is very broad. The research of this topic is helpful in enhancing the comprehensive and objective understanding of the development of photovoltaic cell technology, and will provide a valuable reference in order to advance the photovoltaic sector in the future, which has important practical significance.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240679

    Validation of the applicability of the ideal gas equation of state and its correction based on molecular simulation and statistical methods

    The ideal gas equation of state is a theoretical model devised to simplify the behaviour of real gases, although its usefulness is limited in numerous realistic scenarios. The experimental subject of this study is the Ar atomic gas, and data is gathered using molecular simulation techniques to assess the suitability and scope of the ideal gas equation of state. Simultaneously, statistical techniques such as linear regression and polynomial regression are employed to construct a novel model. Additionally, the ideal gas equation of state is adapted under specific circumstances, leading to the proposition of a fresh empirical gas equation of state. The study determined that the ideal gas equation of state can be applied to Ar atomic gases within the temperature range of 300-500 K and gas densities ranging from 0.1-0.6 g/cm^3. However, when examining higher gas densities, specifically at temperatures of 300 K and densities exceeding 0.6 g/cm^3, a new empirical gas equation was derived. This equation demonstrates that the pressure of Ar atomic gas is influenced by the 1st and 6th power terms of its density.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240680

    Cu-based nano-material catalysts for electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR)

    With the emergence of the global energy crisis and global climate change, renewable energy systems, such as fuel cells that turn off energetic oxygen and carbon cycles, are becoming increasingly important. Carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO_2 RR) is an important electrocatalytic process on the gas diffusion electrode of CO_2 electrolyzer, which has been paid more and more attention by researchers. The problems of high cost, low efficiency, weak selectivity and stability of the carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO_2 RR) also continue to be solved. Catalysts are considered a viable way to solve these problems. The Cu-based nanomaterial catalyst has been proven to have a good positive effect on the reaction. In this paper, the current research results of Cu-based nanomaterials on CO_2 RR were reviewed, and the catalytic effects of several different Cu-based nanomaterials on CO_2 RR reactions were compared. This paper collected the researches on the catalytic effect of copper-based nanomaterials on carbon dioxide reduction reactions in the past ten years, and found that most copper-based nanomaterials can improve the efficiency of the reactions and show good selectivity. The aim of this paper is to provide a possible catalytic direction for the improvement of carbon dioxide reduction reactions in industry

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240682

    Application of silicon-based nanomaterials for improving the performance of battery

    This research discussed the improvement of using silicon-based nanomaterial in batteries compared to graphite batteries because not only in electric vehicles, but also mobile phone users are requiring for longer battery life and faster charging speed and phones cannot increase into an unacceptable weight. This research first introduces how lithium-ion batteries work and analyses the failure of lithium metallic battery: high cost and low security because of dendrites growth. Secondly, this paper discussed how mobile phone manufacturers improved their batteries by using silicon: Honor’s silicon carbon battery and Xiaomi’s silicon-oxygen anode battery. Both have increased the energy density and charging speed and lighter the weight at the same time. In general, silicon can improve battery performance through its high capacity for lithium-ion, and silicon can easily be found in a natural environment which will lead to lower manufacturing costs. As a result, this research can provide a new design approach for the structural design and application performance of nanomaterials in the field of battery applications.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240685

    Application of nanomaterials in Li-ion batteries

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become an important energy storage solution in mobile devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy storage. This research focuses on the key applications of nanomaterials in LIBs, which are attracting attention due to their unique electrochemical properties. This research first introduces the fundamentals and current challenges of LIBs, followed by a detailed list of various nanomaterials, including two-dimensional materials, metal oxides, carbon-based materials, and their wide-ranging applications in LIBs. The research on nanomaterials has revealed significant enhancements in battery performance, including increased capacity, extended cycle life, and improved charge and discharge rates. Furthermore, this research highlights the sustainability and environmental potential of nanomaterials and their important role in mitigating the scarcity of lithium resources. Finally, it will summarize the potential impact of these studies, highlight the research significance of nanomaterials in the field of battery technology, and provide useful guidance and inspiration for the future development of renewable energy storage and electric transportation. This research will help drive innovation in battery technology and pave the way for a more sustainable energy future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240687

    Transforming construction: The growing role of mechatronics in building our infrastructure

    Mechatronics, the synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, control engineering, and computer science, is progressively transforming the construction industry. This paper explores how mechatronic technologies are being applied across the construction lifecycle to enhance productivity, quality, safety, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Core mechatronic technologies changing construction include automated material handling systems, advanced construction robotics, sensor networks for monitoring, laser scanning for accurate modeling and control, and building information modeling (BIM) software. Mechatronics offers multifaceted benefits spanning from enhanced labor productivity and construction velocity to superior quality control, safety, and process optimization. However, realizing the immense potential of mechatronics in construction requires overcoming key challenges including high upfront costs, lack of technical skills, organizational resistance, integration difficulties, and reliability concerns. With thoughtful leadership and implementation, mechatronics promises to revolutionize construction, shifting it towards more automated, streamlined, and optimized techniques. This paper delineates the tremendous potential of mechatronics in construction regarding benefits, technologies, and challenges. The outlook is promising for intelligent mechatronic systems to profoundly enhance productivity, quality, and safety as construction progresses towards greater automation and optimization.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240689

    The review of how ocean acidification affect organisms and ecological environment

    The pH of our sea water is decreasing nowadays. Therefore, ocean acidification has gradually become a problem that people have to face. Human activities since Industrial Revolution are making sea water more and more acidic. Human activity has done some damage to the environment that will directly or indirectly increases the amount of hydrogen ions in seawater, which will finally make the seawater more acidic. One of the result of this changes is ocean acidification. People should start playing attention on this problem. If people do not intervene in advance to acidify the oceans, this issue can cause some consequences that will hurt our environment. The following is the main content of this paper. The reason why carbon dioxide can cause ocean acidification, effects of ocean acidification on Marine ecological environment, the shape of Balanophyllia’s bones changes in different PH environment and Changes in metabolic pathways of phytoplankton under ocean acidification.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240690

    Systematic analysis of microelectronic chip packaging materials

    Microelectronics is a recent hot field, and packaging is an indispensable part of making microelectronic chips. This article introduces the commonly used materials in the field of microelectronic chip packaging. It first presents two complex polymer raw materials recently becoming hot topics, namely epoxy resin and silicone. Then the article presents these two materials from the perspectives of their characteristics, advantages in packaging, and further research directions, allowing readers to have a basic understanding of them while also gaining a general understanding of their research progress. Afterward, the article introduces three crucial types of functional materials in packaging. The article not only presents their respective uses, but also classifies them from the main material types. The article not only analyzes the characteristics and application fields of each material, but also provides some existing in-depth research directions for reference. This article helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge of some microelectronic chip packaging materials, especially in determining their future research direction.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240692

    Application of triblock copolymers in lithium-ion batteries based on solid electrolyte

    In the future, all-solid Li-ion batteries are expected to gain widespread acceptance in larger markets due to their high safety and excellent electrochemical performance. However, it is important to acknowledge their drawbacks, including the inadequate compatibility between the electrode and electrolyte interface and the low ionic conductivity at room temperature. This paper reviews the specific methods and the latest research progress of triblock copolymers to solve the above problems. Block copolymerization is an effective way to enhance the efficiency and performance of electrolyte. Its advantage is that two or more monomers with different properties can be polymerized into the same structure, which is conducive to the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte. In the latest research results, straight-chain block copolymers have been synthesized, which have better physical and chemical properties compared to traditional comb block copolymers. However, the electrochemical properties of the straight-chain block copolymer electrolyte and the stability of the interface between the electrode and the solid electrolyte are rarely reported. Therefore, it is particularly important to systematically study the electrochemical properties and interface properties of block copolymer electrolytes. In the future, more attention should be drawn to not only improving the properties of SPEs but also building a stable interface with low interface resistance.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240693

    Advancements and challenges in nanomaterial-based medical implants

    Nanomaterials have emerged as a groundbreaking technology with transformative applications in medicine, particularly in development of medical implants. In an era where conventional implant materials face limitations in terms of biocompatibility and long-term effectiveness, nanomaterials offer a promising avenue for innovation. This comprehensive review essay focuses on exploring advancements and challenges in employing specific types of nanomaterials, namely carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanocomposites, to enhance the functionality of medical implants. By synthesizing findings from current literature and case studies, this essay establishes that nanomaterials offer substantial improvements in various dimensions, including mechanical strength, biocompatibility and drug delivery capabilities of implants. Carbon nanotubes have demonstrated exceptional tensile strength and flexibility, which can extend the functional lifespan of implants. Graphene, due to unique electronic properties, can be tailored for specific applications like electrical stimulation in neural implants. Nanocomposites provide a balanced combination of mechanical strength and biocompatibility, have shown potential in controlled drug release to mitigate post-operative complications. However, despite these advancements, there are substantial challenges to be addressed. Regulatory approval processes for nanomaterial-based implants are complex, often requiring extensive clinical trials that can prolong market introduction. The potential risks and long-term effects of nanomaterials in human tissues are also not fully understood, requiring further in-depth studies. The implications of this research are profound, as the innovations in nanomaterial-based implants have potential to revolutionize medical treatments and patient outcomes. The study underscores the urgency for further research and clinical trials to accelerate adoption of these promising technologies in mainstream healthcare.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240695

    Application and recycling of lithium-ion batteries

    As an emerging technology with a vast worldwide market application and potential over decades, electric vehicles (EVs) have played a significant role in human society to prevent the deterioration of the environment. Meanwhile, the research on lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in EVs improving their performances, including energy density and cycle life, has recently attracted much attention, aiding the further development of the functions of EVs. This research can be divided into three parts. Firstly, the fundamental of LIBs is presented, including its theory and reasons for having low energy density. Then, the alternative Li-S battery technology employed for EVs is introduced, and its advantages and limitations for future research are illustrated. Lastly, the three main approaches for recycling used LIBs, pyrometallurgical recovery (Pyro.), hydrometallurgical metals reclamation (Hydro.) and direct recycling (Dir.) are elaborated, each of their strengths and weaknesses are shown, and their performances are compared by considering several aspects for selection.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240696

    Investigating advanced strategies for enhancing energy density in lithium-ion batteries

    Lithium-ion batteries have become a versatile energy storage solution for various applications, such as portable electronics and electric vehicles, due to their numerous advantages. The increasing demand for higher energy density has prompted researchers to explore innovative strategies to improve the performance of these batteries. This study systematically investigates cutting-edge techniques aimed at enhancing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. By conducting a detailed analysis of different battery components, this study evaluates the feasibility, efficiency, and potential impact of these approaches on future battery technologies. By giving some concrete examples, such as NMA(LiNi1-x-yMnxAlyO2), LFP(LiFePO4) batteries in cathode, popular silicon-based materials in anode, novel dual conductive binder and solid electrolyte (solid electrolyte interface), some of the working principles are described and the electrochemical properties of the batteries are comparatively analysed. This research aims to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding and research direction for advancing the energy density capabilities of lithium-ion batteries.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240698

    Using roof garden to alleviate urbanization problems -- A case study of Chengdu city

    The accelerated process of urbanization has led to significant urbanization issues such as noise pollution, air pollution, and the urban heat island effect. Roof gardens, as an effective way to create green spaces within cities, have considerable potential to address these urbanization problems. Taking Chengdu City as an example, this paper presents a simple design for a roof garden, focusing on the infrastructure, layout, plant species, and materials of the roof garden. The roof garden was improved after establishing its potential to mitigate urban noise by initial qualitative analysis. Firstly, specific vegetation selections are made which include deciduous trees such as Cephalotaxus Harrington and shrubs like Bauhinia blakeana. which can adapt to Chengdu's climate while effectively capturing dust particles. Secondly, a water storage layer was installed, and the angle of the pavilion roof was adjusted which allows the roof garden to regulate rainwater runoff effectively and minimize potential problems as possible. Although the current roof garden design is still in the theoretical stage and requires further field research and design, it holds tremendous potential in dealing with urban issues due to its unique advantages and policy support.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240699

    Comparative analysis of greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting as supplementary water sources for conventional urban and tourist resort water supplies

    Freshwater scarcity combined with high water demand from rapid urbanization, population growth, and changing consumption has resulted in increasing stress on urban water supply systems. Seasonal fluctuations in the population of tourist destinations are especially evident in tourist resorts. Greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting have been proposed as the most widely used valuable strategies to address water scarcity. By taking the conventional water supply system and the water supply of tourist resorts as examples, this study systematically compares and analyzes the advantages and limitations of greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting by enumerating the stress of water supply in different systems, discussing the benefits of both strategies and comparing the differences when using them for tourist destinations. The results showed that pumping systems or elevated tanks used to meet the water supply needs of high-rise buildings pose energy challenges. The water use characteristics of tourist resorts cause it to be closely related to the seasonal influx of tourists. Greywater recycling is more effective than rainwater harvesting in mitigating tourist resorts' water shortage problem. Suggestions for ways to implement these strategies for different regions are also given to make informed decisions about water distribution efforts. This study provides a reference for sustainable urban water resource management.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240700

    Navigating the nitrogen challenge: Strategies for wastewater management and sustainable resource recovery

    Water scarcity and the impact of nitrogen pollution from wastewater have emerged as pressing global concerns. This study delved into the hazards posed by nitrogen pollution, focusing on its sources, composition, and detrimental effects on both the environment and the agricultural sector. The primary research methodology involved a comparative analysis of various nitrogen control and recovery technologies, highlighting the technical effects and future application prospects of ammonia vapor stripping and adsorption nitrogen recovery. Findings revealed that while ammonia vapor stripping offers operational simplicity, it is energy-intensive and requires careful byproduct management. In contrast, adsorption nitrogen recovery provides a more energy-efficient method, though challenges like selectivity in the presence of contaminants persist. The study concludes by suggesting an integrated approach that combines both methods, optimized based on wastewater characteristics, and underscores the importance of byproduct valorization and the development of selective adsorbents. The ultimate goal is to ensure sustainable environmental solutions while maximizing resource optimization.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240701

    Research on impact of flooding on urban transportation safety

    Extreme rainfall is one of the more serious disasters in recent years, and in recent years, many parts of the country have suffered from urban flooding generated under extreme rainfall, and the impact on transportation has been enormous. Researchers at home and abroad have found measures to cope with urban flooding in terms of transportation, but most of them are localized to explore the underground transportation or above ground transportation problems, and lack of a unified explanation. Therefore, the research theme of this paper is the measures of urban transportation to cope with urban flooding. The research method is as follows: this paper takes Zhengzhou City and several cities in Canada as examples and summarizes the impact of urban underground and above-ground transportation on extreme rainfall and the measures to cope with it in various places through the form of literature review. The study found that the improvement of drainage pipes for better drainage, as well as real-time monitoring of rainfall in the event of flooding, and the timely deployment of escape measures.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240703

    The recovery of the Antarctic ozone layer and suggestions for addressing the global warming

    The ozone layer is a critical shield for humanity, located in the Earth’s atmosphere with a high ozone concentration. Its primary role is to absorb and filter out the majority of harmful ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun, which pose a threat to all living beings. However, the ozone layer suffered from very severe depletion. To counteract this, the Montreal Convention was established in 1987, mandating a reduction in chlorofluorocarbon emissions by humans. Because of the environmental problem of ozone layer destruction for a long time, based on some existing research background at this stage, people find that the ozone layer is gradually recovering through observation of some data. In this essay, it explains the causal factors behind the depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer, as well as the various elements that contribute to its recovery and their respective levels of significance, through some research. Additionally, this essay explores how these models can be applied to address other environmental concerns. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of this subject, this paper has conducted an intensive search through various academic references. In conclusion, through the use of balloon and satellite ozone data, a chemistry-climate model, and volcanic aerosol measurements, the healing of the Antarctic ozone layer is contributed by three factors: chemical reduction, kinetics, and temperature. Among these factors, chemical factors have the greatest contribution.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240705

    Applying different methods to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries

    Currently, the demand for energy is increasing, but people are beginning to realize that the impact of fossil fuels on the environment is very negative. As a more environmentally friendly energy source, electricity has been favored by everyone, and lithium batteries are a good choice. However, there are still some problems with lithium batteries at present. For this reason, a diverse of different methods have been developed and used to solve the problems encountered in the application of lithium-ion batteries. This research will summarize the problems pointed out in the previous literature. There will be different analysis methods for different problems in lithium batteries. The life cycle assessment (LCA) is mentioned in many documents, which can analyze whether electric vehicles are environmentally friendly and how to make them more environmentally friendly. Of course, this research also proposes the use of food waste to refine hard carbon, so that the cost of developing lithium batteries can be reduced.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240708

    Impacts of spatial and temporal patterns and economic development on carbon emissions in Chinese cities

    With the economic and social development and the improvement of people’s living standards, the urban carbon emission increases. Studying the influence of industrial structure and spatial patterns on carbon emission under the economic development of different cities can help to find the main factors affecting carbon emission, formulate policies to solve the problem according to local conditions, and provide an important scientific basis for the transformation of economic growth mode and the construction of low-carbon cities. This paper draws conclusions by analyzing the trend curves of urban carbon emissions and economic factors over the years. Different regions of the city’s economic development potential differences are obvious, and the potential for greater spatial concentration of cities; city’s economic development potential in the spatial and temporal distribution of key cities and major urban agglomerations as the basis for the point - line - surface in order to promote. economically developed cities, the total carbon emissions, carbon emissions growth rate of a declining trend; economically underdeveloped areas, the total carbon emissions, carbon emissions growth rate of a year-on-year trend; the degree of carbon emissions and the degree of prosperity of the secondary industry is closely linked. China’s urban carbon emissions have a significant positive spatial correlation between 2006 and 2016, the “cold spot” area of urban carbon emissions is relatively stable, mainly distributed in the eastern and southern economic zones, while the “hot spot” area is mainly distributed in the northwest, northeast and the middle reaches of the Yellow River economic zone.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-30 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/58/20240709

    Development of flexible manufacturing system

    The focus of this project is the development and analysis of a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for the production of a range of tables. Tables are typically used in homes and offices, where different variants are selected for different environments and uses. By implementing a flexible manufacturing system, different versions of tables can be produced in the same factory to fulfil different customer needs and preferences. This project designed and evaluated four different variants in the FMS, demonstrating aesthetic and functional differences while maintaining core similarities; this demonstrates FMS’s flexibility and adaptability and provides insights into the trade-offs between design choices and manufacturing considerations. The article uses Mejabi and Solberg analysis for detailed FMS design and analysis. This analytical approach allows for thoroughly examining the FMS design, including factors such as productivity, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The analysis further helps understand and optimise the implementation of the FMS to ensure that it effectively meets the production goals. This paper paves the way for enhancing productivity, increasing product range and improving customer satisfaction in the furniture manufacturing industry.

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