Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    Conference Date

    2024-01-13

    Website

    https://www.confmcee.org/

    Notes

     

    ISBN

    978-1-83558-405-7 (Print)

    978-1-83558-406-4 (Online)

    Published Date

    2024-05-07

    Editors

    Seyed Ghaffar, University of Birmingham

Articles

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240821

    Nanomaterials in aerospace: Revolutionizing flight and exploration through nanoscale advancements

    The rapid advancements in nanotechnology have paved the way for the exploration of innovative materials with unique properties that were once considered unattainable. As industries worldwide strive for more efficient and high-performance solutions, the aerospace sector, in particular, has recognized the immense potential of integrating nanomaterials to push the boundaries of what’s achievable in aviation and space exploration. This paper delves into the history, characteristics, and advantages of nanomaterials, with a distinct focus on their application in aerospace. Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers, exhibit unique properties, such as enhanced strength, lightweight attributes, wear resistance, high-temperature tolerance, and eco-friendliness. Notably, nanocomposites in aerospace structures can lead to weight reductions of up to 30%. The article also highlights specific nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, nano-ceramics, and graphene, emphasizing their mechanical and structural properties. In aerospace applications, nanomaterials have been instrumental in strengthening aircraft structures, developing wear-resistant coatings, optimizing fuel additives, and thermal insulations, and enhancing sensor performances. Given the transformative impact of nanomaterials in the aerospace domain, they offer a promising avenue for future research and development, with the potential to revolutionize modern aerospace technologies.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240822

    Composition and application prospect of several novel quantum dot-polymer composites

    In this paper, we will extensively discuss the research and future prospects of quantum dot-polymer composites, while also highlighting notable examples from existing studies. By examining the unique synergies between quantum dots and polymers, we aim to shed light on the advantages and significance of this composite approach in various domains. Our study will carefully analyze previous research endeavors, aiming to explore the diverse range of quantum dot-polymer composite materials. Through this exploration, we will elucidate the emergence of novel properties and functionalities resulting from this innovative combination. By showcasing successful instances of quantum dots integrated into polymer matrices, we endeavor to establish a comprehensive understanding of the immense potential held by these composites. By uncovering the synergistic effects between these two materials, we hope to inspire further advancements and collaborations in this exciting field. By delving into the successful integration of quantum dots within polymer matrices, we aim to emphasize the transformative potential of these composites. Their ability to combine the exceptional characteristics of both quantum dots and polymers open new avenues for advanced technologies and applications.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240823

    An analysis of current methanol to olefin development technology: DMTO and SMTO

    The global demand for ethylene and propylene is about 200 million tons per year, which requires a very efficient and large number of separation systems. It is necessary to study the chemical packaging system, which is effective and emits fewer pollutants. Based on the existing literature and data, this paper includes two main advanced technologies from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences DMTO and SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute SMTO. Specific analysis and optimization of energy loss and product loss in each process are carried out. The result shows that optimization of reaction conditions and other ways to improve the conversion rate and product selectivity is currently the main direction, as is the development of more energy-efficient new high-efficiency separation technology to achieve energy savings. At present, there is still ample room for innovation in the research of catalysts and the corresponding supporting reactor types, in addition to meeting quality requirements and further optimizing the process for technological innovation.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240824

    Application of electronic information in environmental protection

    In the 21st century, the growing recognition of the fragility of our planet’s ecosystems and the urgency of addressing environmental challenges have spurred an increased emphasis on environmental awareness and protection. The intricate interplay between human activities and the natural environment has underscored the need for innovative approaches to safeguarding our planet for current and future generations. In this context, the fusion of information technology with environmental protection has emerged as a dynamic force for positive change, reshaping the way we understand and address ecological issues. This article delves deeper into the multifaceted applications of information technology in the realm of environmental protection, exploring their significance, benefits, and potential for shaping a sustainable future. At the same time, 3S technology, Internet of Things technology and network technology play a very important role in pollutant discharge monitoring, data sharing and timely response, which is very suitable for environmental protection.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240826

    Research progress on the application of two-dimensional layered semiconductors in optoelectronic devices

    In recent years, traditional 2D layered materials such as graphene have been widely used in the photoelectric area. As the emerging research and development of 2D layered materials, there are more and more newly developed 2D layered semiconductors being applied to this field, such as MoS2, phosphorene, and other nanomaterials. 2D layered MoS2 can be utilized as sensitive elements to obtain high-performance photodetectors with high responsivity, high current response rate, and short recovery time. Moreover, because phosphorene has adjustable bandgap width and strong light absorption, it has more potential in aspects of other semiconductors, and application in photoelectric devices. This article introduced the structures of some common 2D layered semiconductors, discussed their applications in photoelectric fields, and pointed out their limitations. For example, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials generally have low carrier mobility, and black phosphorus is prone to adsorb water molecules from the air, leading to changes in its physical and chemical properties. Finally, improvement methods of applications and prospects for future development were provided.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240829

    Nanotechnology applications in conventional lithium-ion batteries

    Since the successful development of the first battery, it has prompted the development of the electronics industry. From only able to power small electronics, to powering fully electrical vehicles, battery technologies have developed to a promising extent, and has become ever more integral across many fields. However, conventional methods currently face challenges in improving battery performance to meet higher demands. The urgency of the issue calls for researcher to create innovate, new approaches to tackle the problem. The recent rise in nanotechnology research has prompted unique and practical solutions to some of battery technology’s most major problems: low power and energy density. This article offers a comprehensive compilation and overview of recent advancements in nanotechnology applied to lithium-ion batteries and how these breakthroughs have effectively addressed critical challenges in enhancing battery performance. Emphasises in areas of nanotech research covered in this article includes silicon nanotechnology, carbon nanotechnology, and other innovative approaches to battery development.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240830

    The advantages of using remote sensing technology to monitor forest fires

    Forest plays an irreplaceable role in the natural environment and human development. In recent years, forest fires have occurred frequently, causing damage to forests that is difficult to repair. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to enhance the ability to prevent and monitor forest fires. This paper mainly uses the methods of searching literature and data, analyzing and researching literature to analyze the main causes of forest fires and the related impacts on the environment, personnel, and economy, analyzes and summarizes the advantages of remote sensing technology in the prevention and monitoring of forest fires in detail, and gives examples of remote sensing technology in the field of forest fire monitoring. At the same time, it mentions the matters that need attention in the application of remote sensing technology and puts forward suggestions on the prevention and monitoring of forest fires respectively. Compared with traditional forest fire monitoring methods, this paper finds that remote sensing technology has the advantages of saving manpower and material resources, precision, and high efficiency, and can be widely used in forest fire monitoring. This paper can provide data, literature, and other reference values for remote sensing researchers and forest fire prevention and monitoring workers.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240833

    Research on participants in China's distant-water fisheries management

    In 1985, the first Chinese distant-water fishing vessel set sail for West Africa to conduct fishing operations. Over three decades of development, China’s distant-water fisheries have evolved into a vital sector of the nation’s fishing industry. Distant-water fisheries not only provide economic benefits to fishermen but are also closely tied to China’s national interests. To safeguard the interests of China’s distant-water fisheries, effective fisheries management is essential. Therefore, studying the participants in fisheries management is crucial for assessing the governance and future development of China’s fisheries management. This paper explores the domestic and international participants in China’s distant-water fisheries and their modes of involvement, as well as outlines the future directions for the management of China’s distant-water fisheries for academic reference.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240835

    Analysis of the effect of plum rain on Yangtze River Delta

    Every year, from June to July, there will be two or three weeks of continuous precipitation at Yangtze River Region. This precipitation is called Plum Rain. This paper is mainly about the Plum rain front, and its effect on the Yangtze River Delta. While the Yangtze River Delta is a large area, and considering that the data has to be easy to access, this paper specifics the topic to the most representable region-Shanghai. This paper is divided into 4 parts, the first part is the introduction, including the naming and formation of the plum rain. The second part is mainly about several types of anomalous plum rain and how they occurred. The third part analyzes the effects of the plum rain on the Yangtze River Delta region, and how to prevent these effects. The fourth part is conclusion. This paper believes that the prediction and alarming of anomalous plum rain should be focused on, and the prediction can let the government to advance layout, and decrease the economic loss when anomalous plum rain strikes.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240836

    Perovskite photovoltaic effect and its application on solar cell

    Significant attention has been attracted by perovskite photovoltaic materials due to their excellent monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. This article will provide an overview of the fundamental principles of perovskite photovoltaic effects, the various types of perovskite photovoltaic materials, their optoelectronic properties, key factors influencing the performance of perovskite photovoltaics, and the current situation as well as future challenges of perovskite solar cells. It emphasizes that the continuous tunability of perovskite structure is pivotal in achieving highly efficient photoelectric materials. Doping and interface design plays a substantial role in enhancing the performance of perovskite solar cells. Finally, the article offers a glimpse into the prospects of commercial applications and potential research directions of perovskite photovoltaic materials. This article serves as a valuable reference for further comprehension and development of efficient and stable perovskite photovoltaic materials, paving the way for advancements in renewable energy technology.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240838

    Analysis of the current situation and challenges of the popularity of new energy vehicles

    In order to solve the problem of greenhouse gas emissions generated by burning fossil fuels, countries around the world are actively promoting new energy vehicles. This paper elaborates on the current situation of global new energy vehicles through literature analysis, compares the advantages of new energy vehicles with traditional vehicles, and reveals the challenges faced by new energy vehicles based on this. The results showed that the number of new energy vehicles worldwide is gradually increasing, and the government is actively promoting the widespread application of new energy vehicles. Compared with traditional fuel vehicles, new energy vehicles can effectively solve the exhaust problem of traditional vehicles and save the cost of exhaust gas treatment. However, new energy vehicles face the challenge of a lack of appropriate energy storage systems, efficient Battery management systems and high-performance fast charging facilities. The increase in the popularity of electric vehicles depends on providing incentives and government policies. To upgrade the sales of new energy vehicles, manufacturers must pay attention to diversity and create attractive new energy vehicles.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240840

    The impact of interest rate uncertainty on renewable energy investments: Compared with conventional energy investments

    In contrast to other types of energy investments, governments often use long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs), subsidy policies, etc., to lock in returns on renewable energy investments. To some extent, these initiatives ensure that renewable energy investment has a fixed future cash flow. The public’s demand for an increase in the proportion of renewable energy also forces the government to maintain an annual investment in renewable energy. However, it remains uncertain whether people’s willingness to invest would not be severely affected, and whether renewable energy investment volumes are uniquely robust in the face of financial uncertainty. In this paper, linear regression method is used to analyse the impact of short-term interest rate uncertainty on renewable/conventional energy investment, and covariance analysis is used to test whether these impacts are significantly different. The data indicate that short-term interest rate uncertainty has a significant negative impact. Investment in both types of energy shrinks rapidly in the face of high interest rate uncertainty. No obvious stability is found on renewable energy investment volume in the face of short-term interest rate uncertainty.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240841

    Permanent magnet motor drive technology for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

    Global climate change, resulting from the release of greenhouse gases, poses a severe threat to human existence. The detrimental consequences of this phenomenon encompass rising sea levels, modified climate zones, and intensified extreme weather events. To counteract greenhouse gas emissions, the development of permanent magnet motor drive technology has gained prominence, especially in the automotive industry. This comprehensive review examines the advantages, limitations, and potential applications of permanent magnet motor drives in mitigating the adverse effects of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the review addresses the challenges associated with this technology and outlines future research and development directions in this field. The findings of this review provide valuable insights into the capacity of permanent magnet motor drives to combat climate change and pave the way for future advancements in this critical domain. By adopting and advancing this technology, we can strive towards a more sustainable future and alleviate the threats posed by global climate change.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240842

    Application of nanomaterial for optical sensors design

    Nanomaterials are considered to be materials whose design construction requires at least one of their dimensions to be comprising of components that are sized within 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanosize can endow nanomaterials with new functions such as new physical, chemical and optical properties that their larger counterparts do not possess. These properties of nanoparticles have thus, become a subject of huge interest as research in them have flourished in the past decades and revealed myriads of new applications that can make this technology indispensable in our lives and in future research. Their various different physical and chemical properties, and their application in some of the most advanced technology-based research of the current decades have been discussed in this research. And also, this research will allow future researchers to exploit the existing gaps in knowledge and research to advance the field further and design newer different applications for the nanomaterials.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240847

    Comparison of graphene nanoribbons and phosphorene nanoribbons in electrical performance applications

    With the development of the electronic equipment field, the component miniaturization has become an inevitable trend. Since the discovery of graphene, a diverse of different research on low-dimensional nanomaterials has been intensive. There is no lack of materials with excellent performance. Graphene nanoribbons and phosphorene nanoribbons, as two very important materials in this research direction, the comparison of the two properties has always been the concern of scholars. This research summarizes the years of graphene nanoribbons and phosphorene nanoribbons in the band gap, preparation method and other aspects of the article, through the horizontal comparison, found that the gap between the two is not high, such as carrier mobility maintains a similarly high level. Phosphorene nanoribbons has a small advantage in on/off ratio with its intrinsic band gap. However, due to its high chemical reactivity, the preparation still has defects, and it is difficult to reach the height of graphene nanoribbons in practical application.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240849

    Sensors constructed from carbon nanomaterials and their applications

    Diabetes is a growing disease, with patient morbidity and mortality increasing every year. Since diabetes is associated with short- and long-term health problems, it has become extremely important to detect and effectively treat diabetes. Many research institutes and healthcare organizations are leaning towards the use of cost-effective biosensors to monitor the body's blood glucose standards and provide accurate health diagnosis. Biosensors help in accurate diabetes diagnosis and monitoring for effective treatment and management. Based on the recent advances in nanotechnology, a variety of glucose biosensors made of carbon nanomaterials have been developed, and such sensors are a key factor for diabetes diagnosis and treatment, with better performance and sensitivity for better detection of the disease and tracking of the response to treatment. Thus, this research illustrates the significant advances in nanotechnology-based biosensors for medical applications and the potential of carbon nanomaterials for good applications in medical testing.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240853

    Research on sustainable bridge construction based on environmental protection

    In the face of growing environmental concerns and the need for sustainable infrastructure, bridge construction has become a focus of innovation and research. This paper focuses on optimizing bridge design by reducing material usage, refining construction processes, and integrating green design principles. Exploring innovative materials like Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM), Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW), Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PFRC), and TiO2-based building materials, the study evaluates their structural viability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental impact. Results demonstrate the potential of these materials. SCM enhances concrete strength while reducing cement content, Sugarcane Bagasse Ash proves sustainable in non-structural elements, and CDW offers lightweight, eco-friendly solutions. PFRC serves as an alternative to steel reinforcement, balancing sustainability and strength. Additionally, TiO2-based materials showcase air purification and self-cleaning capabilities, promising low-maintenance structures. The research extends to novel techniques like bio-cementation and self-sustaining energy solutions, opening avenues for sustainable bridge construction. This study pioneers eco-conscious bridge engineering, offering tangible solutions for environmentally responsible, structurally sound, and economically viable bridges.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240854

    Study on seismic response reduction of high-rise building

    With the needs of social development, the importance of high-rise building construction has become increasingly obvious. The safety of high-rise buildings, especially the safety under earthquakes, has always been an important problem. This paper collates and summarizes a large number of research results related to seismic resistance and isolation of high-rise buildings, and obtains the commonly used seismic resistance and isolatiors as well as improvement measures and possible directions for future development. Currently, commonly used methods and improvement measures mainly focus on changing the material, form and distribution position of the isolators, changing the energy consumption principle and distribution position of the dampers, and mixing the isolators and the damping device. A possible future research direction is to improve the soil layer near the foundation of high-rise buildings, such as adding artificial materials to improve its weakening effect on seismic waves. Research on the seismic resistance and isolators of high-rise buildings will help high-rise buildings to be used more reliably and rationally in the future, thereby fully realizing the social value of high-rise buildings.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240855

    Research on the sustainable materials in building construction

    The construction industry has historically contributed to the waste of resources, energy use, and carbon emissions. Concrete and cement, the most common materials in the construction industry, are used in almost every building. However, the amount of carbon dioxide produced by conventional concrete and cement has an irreversible negative impact on the environment. To lessen the damaging environmental effects of these problems, many researchers have worked on sustainable materials. These problems have fueled research into sustainable building materials to reduce its negative environmental impacts. This study focuses on analysing the properties and applications of four sustainable building materials now used in the construction industry, namely polymer concrete, cement stabilised rammed earth, bamboo fibre geopolymer and waste steel slag. The researchers realised that for sustainable development, alternative materials and methods are to be found to reduce the dependence on traditional resources. Most of these four materials have sustainable materials added to traditional building materials and the emergence of these new materials provides more options for sustainable construction.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/60/20240856

    Analysis on different materials for enhancing axial compression capacity of reinforced concrete

    Compressive strength is one of the most important properties of concrete. Nowadays, a great variety of studies are delivered to analyse the effects of different materials on the compression capacity of concrete. This paper mainly focuses on some of these materials including basalt fiber, succinic acid, rice husk, Robo sand, glass sand, cattle manure ash (CMA) and metakaolin. Based on the researches, most of them showed significant positive effect on concrete’s compressive strength. However, it is also noticed that most of the researches only investigated the effects of single materials. The effects of combination of innovative materials are still unclear. In addition, the cost of adding these innovative materials is still unknown, which may lead to the difficulty in implementation. Finally, this paper also aims to reveal the common features of materials that can enhance the compression capacity of concrete, which might be a signal implying the potential of untested materials to improve concrete’s compressive strength.

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