Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    Conference Date

    2024-01-13

    Website

    https://www.confmcee.org/

    Notes

     

    ISBN

    978-1-83558-403-3 (Print)

    978-1-83558-404-0 (Online)

    Published Date

    2024-05-07

    Editors

    Seyed Ghaffar, University of Birmingham

Articles

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240738

    Battery health status assessment technology based on big data and artificial intelligence

    A data-driven battery health status evaluation method based on electrochemical models, big data, and mathematical statistics is proposed in this paper to address the issues of long cycle, low efficiency, and high cost in current battery health status detection. This detection method in this study first calculates the Soc-power parameters of the vehicle series based on the log data of valid orders in the history of the vehicle series. Then, combined with the data of each order, the initial evaluation capacity of the order is calculated. Next, an anomaly detection algorithm is used to exclude abnormal orders from the vehicle within the past 60 days. The average of the initial evaluation capacity of the order is used to obtain the final evaluation capacity of the order. Finally, a sliding average is used to obtain the evaluation capacity of the battery, divide the evaluated capacity by the nominal capacity to obtain the battery health status. Based on this technology, the current health status of the battery can be quickly and accurately obtained, while reducing the detection cost and cycle, allowing for real-time detection of the battery's health status.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240739

    Research on the effects of global warming on forest litter decomposition

    Global warming is currently one of the foremost environmental challenges, exerting a profound and extensive influence on natural ecosystems. The alteration of forest litter, as a crucial source of organic matter within these ecosystems, plays a pivotal role in the context of global warming. Litter decomposition represents the process through which carbon and nutrients contained therein are transferred, serving as a crucial nexus for vegetation-litter-soil nutrient cycling and biogeochemistry, playing a significant role in soil nutrient composition. This paper aims to investigate the impact of global warming-induced changes in certain factors on the rate of forest litter decomposition, while evaluating their potential implications for ecosystem function, the carbon cycle and climate change. This study delves into the complex interplay between various environmental factors and their impact on forest litter decomposition. The five factors examined in this research—temperature, precipitation, snow cover and associated freeze-thaw phenomena, soil composition, and disasters—all play a crucial role in shaping the rate of decomposition. Based on the findings presented in this paper, it can be inferred that global warming will exert direct or indirect influences on forest litter decomposition from multiple perspectives.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240741

    Application of nanotechnology-based battery performance improvement in the field of electric vehicles

    With the global energy demand on the rise, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted more attention as they play a pivotal role in electrification revolution. This research intends to investigate how does the application of nanotechnology have an impact on the current commercialized LIBs among electric vehicles through different components such as cathode, anode and electrolyte of the battery itself under the carbon neutral context in the next decade. The major trends for cathode material are NMC/NCA though efforts have been made to reduce the reliance on cobalt; anode material is mainly graphite-based, and the mainstream electrolyte remains in liquid organic solvent that’s electrochemically unstable. Through current research findings presented in different research, a summary of the current progress made in the nanotechnology field for better battery performance will be generated, and a proposed future research focus and innovations with lingering challenges like energy density and sustainability issues for battery recycling will be carried out.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240742

    Application of metal-based nanomaterials in lithium batteries

    Due to the current lithium-ion battery performance there are still many deficiencies, battery performance needs to be improved, so people through the synthesis of metal-based nanomaterials, and its application in lithium batteries to improve the electrochemical performance of batteries. This paper summarizes the application of some metal nanomaterials in lithium batteries, such as silver, platinum and gold. These metal nanomaterials can not only be used in the positive electrode as a supported catalyst to solve the problems of low charge and discharge overpotential, insufficient battery capacity, and unstable cycle performance, but also can be used in the anode. Among them, TiO2 nanoparticles used in the anode can enhance lithium ion diffusion and charge transfer, which can provide higher battery capacity, rate performance and cycle stability for lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are expected to become a new generation of all-round use of energy in the future, not only because it is significantly less than the traditional fuel cell pollution to the environment, lithium batteries also have a higher performance limit than fuel cells, so how to improve the capacity of the existing lithium batteries, cycle stability and other performance is the direction that people need to study.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240743

    Applying different nanomaterials to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries

    Due to their superior qualities, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have lately taken the top spot among rechargeable secondary batteries. To achieve the increasing demand for electricity in the related industries, its improvement and development are in full swing, especially the nanomaterials have become an important direction of improvement because of their special structure matching with charging-discharging mechanisms. This paper focuses on the application of nanomaterials in the LIBs. It briefly introduces carbon-based and silicon-based nanomaterials, metal (alloy), metal oxide (sulfide), MOFs nanomaterials, and Mxenes in lithium-ion batteries and lithium-sulfur batteries by reviewing the pertinent literature from recent years. including the reasons for their application, the application mechanism and the effectiveness of their improvement. It has been discovered that nanoparticles have numerous and intricate uses in the LIBs. It is hoped that this study can provide new ideas for the structural design and functional modification of nanomaterials in battery applications in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240744

    The response of Pacific decadal variability to global warming

    Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) plays a pivotal role in understanding climate shifts. This study focuses on investigating the primary components of PDV, namely, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These components are defined as the first and second principal modes of the North Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly field. Our analysis indicates that under the influence of global warming, both PDO and NPGO exhibit a weakening of the amplitude and a shortening of the period. Furthermore, NPGO demonstrates a more pronounced response to a 2°C warming scenario compared to a 1.5°C increase. This heightened sensitivity is attributed to the accelerated propagation of Rossby waves, a consequence of enhanced ocean stratification. The findings of this research contribute to the establishment of a scientific foundation for informed environmental policy development, facilitating the promotion of environmental conservation and sustainable development.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240745

    Detection and quantitation methods for β-blockers

    Beta-blockers, also known as β-blockers, are a class of medications commonly prescribed to treat arrhythmias (Drugs such as Bisoprolol, metoprolol succinate), prevent secondary heart attacks, and sometimes manage hypertension. These drugs inhibit the activity of endogenous catecholamines—namely epinephrine and norepinephrine—within the sympathetic nervous system by targeting adrenergic beta-receptors. While some beta-blockers non-competitively block all beta-adrenergic receptors, others do so in a competitive manner. It is targeted at the beta receptor on the cell wall, selectively binds to the beta adrenergic receptor, antagonizes the excitatory effect of neurotransmitters and catecholamines on the beta receptor, and is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure and other diseases, which can cause adverse reactions. Moreover, It may cause bradycardia, second degree type II and above atrioventricular block, bronchial asthma, and hypotension. Central nervous system adverse reactions, multiple dreams, hallucinations, insomnia, fatigue, vertigo and depression and other symptoms, especially high-fat soluble β-blockers, easy to cross the blood-brain barrier to cause adverse reactions, such as propranolol. The commonly used β-blockers in clinic include metoprolol, atenolol and ecolol. In the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classification of drugs according to the degree of harm to pregnant women, most drugs are classified as class C or D.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240748

    Properties of stainless steel and its application in construction

    Stainless steel, an alloy of iron and chromium with the inclusion of other elements, has gained significant prominence in the construction industry due to its remarkable properties such as corrosion resistance, high strength, good durability, and aesthetic quality. In other words, its unique mechanical, chemical, and aesthetic properties make it a valuable material applied in the construction field. Through case studies, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the diverse applications of stainless steel in construction, encompassing its structural, architectural, and functional uses. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that stainless steel is well-performed in resisting corrosion and improving structural performance. Due to these properties, stainless steel is widely used in the architecture of different countries. However, there are still some challenges for it to overcome, including the high production costs, poor thermal conductivity, and large weight. Moreover, it is easy to rust after a long time exposure to chemicals such as chloride and sulfide. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize stainless steel from various aspects.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240757

    Research on the comprehensive evaluation of light pollution

    Light pollution refers to the inappropriate and excessive use of artificial light. The increasing extent and intensity of artificial light has impacted the biology and ecology of species significantly. Admittedly, the widespread use of light benefits people to a large extent and is positively associated with modernization, security, and wealth. But its catastrophic effects can never be ignored. To be specific, light pollution can arouse negative health impacts such as headaches, dizziness, increased anxiety, pressure, and fatigue. The paper wants to find applicable indicators regarding the risk levels of light pollution and establish criteria to judge the risk of light pollution in different areas. In the process, the research first measures the interconnection between the indicators, which are chosen to reflect the risk of light pollution, and then uses PCA to implement dimensionality reduction so as to simplify the model. After that, EWM and TOPSIS are applied to determine the weight of each indicator and the rating of the cities. Institutions or governments that are responsible for managing light pollution can then use the model to judge the risk level of different cities. The model can help to avoid overlooking or overemphasizing a city's light pollution risk level, providing a more accurate estimation. In this case, institutions and the government can take better and more effective measures to restrict light pollution.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240758

    Analysis of strategies for improving the application performance of perovskite solar cells

    Under the social background of energy shortage, climate change and environmental pollution, people’s demand for renewable energy is increasing. Solar energy is an important choice, but the problem of “cost efficiency and low” of traditional silicon solar cells has not been effectively solved. Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were discovered in 2012 by researchers who overcame the conventional issues. The PSCs are made up of three layers of electrodes: a perovskite layer, an electron transport layer, and a hole transport layer. In-depth descriptions of the n-i-p and p-i-n structures are also provided. PSCs also have difficulties with environmental safety, dependability, and stability. Interface engineering is an important strategy, which can improve the performance and life of the battery by optimizing the energy level matching between various layers, defect passivation and carrier transport. With the progress of science and technology and the optimization of equipment, the problem of non-uniformity of perovskite layer on rigid non-planar surface can be significantly improved by using ultrasonic spraying technology. Through the optimization of the production process and composition configuration of PSCs, some related discussions are carried out, hoping to improve and help the scientific research project and some energy industries.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240763

    Evaluate the potential of electrification to achieve urbanization and carbon neutrality

    Electrification applications in transport and energy supply can significantly reduce carbon emissions. The impact of electrification on carbon emissions reduction varies across countries with different development profiles. In developed countries, with the increase of renewable resources usage in electricity production, the per capita CO2 emissions decrease. For example, Germany increased its share of electricity production from renewable sources from 6.2% to 44%, and its per capita CO2 emissions dropped from 11.2 t to 8.1t. While in developing countries, the per capita CO2 emissions are still increasing with the increase of electrification level. For example, India increased its degree of electrification from 58% to 99%, and its per capita CO2 emissions increased from 0.9 t to 1.9 t. This paper first used LCA data to compare the Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electric vehicles and fuel vehicles and GHG emissions of electricity plants from different energy sources. Then, this paper used Linear regression to determine how close between electrification and climate change. This research aims to identify the potential of electrification to achieve urbanization and carbon neutrality, as there are few discussions regarding the combination of these three topics at present. This research can confirm the benefit of electrification in reducing carbon emissions, which can promote the broad application of electrification and its development.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240766

    Application of nanotechnology in traditional Chinese medicine and current problems

    Following the development of nanotechnology, more attention has been paid to nanotechnology and its applications. Nanotechnology can be applied in various fields, and it has demonstrated outstanding performance in medical science. Applications in traditional Chinese medicine are able to promote the development of TCM. In this article, the application of nanotechnology in the traditional Chinese medicine in different fields as well as the preparation and processing methods of nano TCM have been introduced. What is more, the benefits it brings and existing problems have been given. The benefits of nanotechnology applications include helping to increase the bioavailability of drugs through different pathways, enhancing absorption and reducing toxicity of drugs. Some suggestions have also been made for future developments. This article will help to provide the innovative ideas and approaches for the future development of the traditional Chinese medicine, which may possibly combine the ancient wisdom and knowledge with modern technology.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240767

    Research status of colloidal gold detection technology in medicine

    The application of antigen testing is widely used in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and antigen tests have also been simplified for everyday use due to their convenience and operational capabilities. Colloidal gold nanoparticles are an important component in most antigen tests. This paper summarizes the principles and characteristics of colloidal gold nanoparticles mainly by reviewing a large amount of literature and also performs antigen testing and observes the development process, thus validating the theoretical aspects. In this paper, it was found that colloidal gold nanoparticles can react with viruses and produce visible results on immunochromatographic test paper. However, when the concentration of the virus is insufficient, visualization effect may not be discernible to the naked eye. This is the reason why antigen testing is not as accurate as nucleic acid testing. Therefore, antigen testing is more suitable for home-based daily testing. This article has helped to understand the role of colloidal gold nanoparticles in immunochromatographic test strips, which in turn aids in improving the accuracy of these test strips.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240768

    Comparison of nanomaterial Ag and nanomaterial TiO2 in food fields

    With the development of society, nanotechnology is being used in all aspects of life. Con-cerns about the application and safety of nanotechnology in the food industry are also in-creasing. In this study, the hidden risks and benefits of nanotechnology in the food indus-try will be analyzed and discussed in depth. The main purpose of the study is to research the uses, benefits and drawbacks of two nanomaterials, Ag and TiO2, in the food sector. This paper initially discusses the use of Ag and TiO2 in three distinct food-related do-mains and the advantages and disadvantages of nanomaterials Ag and TiO2 in this field. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the two materials in three different sectors are con-trasted. According to the study’s findings, each of the two nanoparticles has benefits over the other when it comes to fighting bacteria in food. The whitening qualities of TiO2 na-noparticles make them excellent food additives. For storing and preserving food, experts prefer to choose Ag nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles may effectively destroy harmful germs in contact with food when exposed to ultraviolet light, enhancing food safety. Ac-cording to this study, scientists can further allay public concerns about nanoparticle tech-nology and increase the safety of using nanotechnology in food in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240770

    Population analysis using GIS software tools – A case study of Chengdu

    Understanding how the population is distributed geographically helps governments and organizations allocate resources more efficiently. For example, they can allocate funds for infrastructure development, healthcare facilities, schools, and public services based on the population's concentration and distribution. City planners can use population distribution data to design cities and urban areas effectively. They consider factors like housing needs, transportation infrastructure, and zoning regulations based on the population's spatial distribution. This study takes Chengdu as an example, and the article analyzes the spatial structure distribution of the population in Chengdu in the last decade based on the census data of 2012, 2017, and 2021, using analysis methods such as population distribution structure index (PDSI), mean pointer center, and population center of gravity, combined with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that the population distribution pattern in Chengdu has not changed much, but the city area has been expanded. Besides, the policy adjustment has a certain impact on the population center of gravity but not as much as other factors. At last, topography, transportation, and economic development all have an impact on the population distribution of Chengdu.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240771

    A Comparison of new and age-old approaches treating microplastics in the marine environment

    In recent years, microplastic pollution in the ocean has become a new environmental threat, posing a serious potential threat to marine ecology. Due to its high degradation resistance and bioaccumulation, it is an urgent and critical issue for the environment. Unfortunately, current technologies for removing, recycling, or degrading microplastics are not sufficient to eliminate them. The main sources of microplastics (MPs) in the ocean are ocean drift inputs, river inputs, fishing and shipping activities, microplastic emissions from human settlements, and atmospheric migration. Microplastics may pose a threat to marine life and affect the stability of marine ecosystems. Therefore, it is urgent to further study governance methods and analysis processes, and strengthen the source control of marine microplastic pollution. This study aims to analyze and discuss different methods for treating marine microplastics, analyze their respective advantages and limitations, and evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness in practical applications. The study ultimately emphasized the importance of effective management of marine microplastics, which is crucial for protecting marine ecosystems and human health. Through a comprehensive analysis of physical, chemical, and biological methods, this study provides valuable insights for marine environmental management and research institutions, thereby promoting the development and application of effective management technologies to achieve sustainable environmental outcomes.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240772

    Dendritic cell vaccines: A potentially effective strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

    The evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unpredictable, and there is an urgent need for new and effective vaccines to mitigate the pandemic at a time when traditional vaccines may not be sufficient to deal with SARS-CoV-2 variants everywhere. The dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, a novel cancer immunotherapy, has achieved good results in clinical trials alone or combination with other interventions. Due to its strong immune activation ability and the relevant targets found by existing studies, it is expected to become a new immunotherapy against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article discusses the mechanism of dendritic cells in the immune system and its strategies in cancer treatment, as well as analyzes the role of dendritic cell vaccines in coping with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of existing vaccine types, in order to explore the possibility of dendritic cell vaccines as an effective strategy against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240777

    Spatial-temporal variation of NDVI and its climatic response in Li River Basin based on GEE

    Vegetation serves as a crucial indicator of ecological environment in different regions. Land cover vegetation is significantly impacted by climatic factors and human activities, and good coverage can enhance the quality of the local ecological environment. The Lijiang River Basin is a typical karst landscape with a delicate ecological environment. Describing changes in the characteristics of vegetation cover under different influencing factors carries significant significance for the restoration of vegetation in karst areas, taking the Li River Basin as an example. This study is based on the vegetation NDVI dataset MOD13Q1 of the Li River Basin from 2000 to 2020. Results showed that: over the past 21 years, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) mean value in the Li River Basin was around 0.85. The Li River Basin’s inter-annual growth rate was 0.011/10yr; nevertheless, there are substantial discrepancies among regions. Vegetation was notably more impacted by temperature than precipitation in terms of land cover. NDVI exhibited a decline trend from the central area to the peripheral areas. Additionally, there was a lack of vegetation cover on the upper, western side of the middle reaches, and eastern side of downstream.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240779

    Necessity and limitations of transportation electrification

    In recent times, there has been a significant surge in the prioritization of electrifying the transportation sector. The heightened focus on these factors might perhaps be attributed to the industry’s ability to effectively tackle and mitigate environmental problems and handle energy security challenges. This research examines the fundamental variables that are propelling the shift towards electrification within the transportation industry, alongside the limitations and obstacles linked to the extensive implementation of this technological advancement. As the transportation electrification business continues to expand, several doubts, such as spontaneous combustion, have led many to question the appropriateness of its further development. Gaining a thorough comprehension of the electrification trend and its possible constraints via an analysis of technological, economic, and infrastructural aspects proves to be very advantageous. In addition, understanding the fundamental reasons for the limitations of transportation electrification can help develop new technologies to enhance its electrification level in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-07 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/59/20240781

    The construction of an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor with 2D materials MXene and perovskite

    The traditional energy storage techniques have several initial drawbacks limiting this application. Batteries suffer from a slow charge and discharge rate, and capacitors have low energy densities. The pseudocapacitor, a technology that storages energy through surface chemical reactions, is supposed to fill the energy and power density gap between the dielectric capacitor and battery. In order to verify the superiority of this technology, an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor has been designed with 2D material MXene (Ti3C2Tx) as the negative electrode and high-entropy perovskite-type materials (La(CoCrFeMnNi)O3) as the positive electrode. XRD has verified the crystallography of both electrode materials, and the morphology has been further studied by SEM, TEM, and HAADF-STEM. The electrochemical performance has been tested by CV, GCD, and EIS. Besides, the influence of the different elements of the high-entropy perovskite has been studied. The asymmetric supercapacitor shows both high energy and power density, which may be used to extend energy-storage technology applications.

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