Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    Conference Date

    2024-01-13

    Website

    https://www.confmcee.org/

    Notes

     

    ISBN

    978-1-83558-407-1 (Print)

    978-1-83558-408-8 (Online)

    Published Date

    2024-05-08

    Editors

    Seyed Ghaffar, University of Birmingham

Articles

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240905

    The research progress on photocatalytic performance of graphene-based nanocomposites

    As soon as nanomaterials were discovered, they attracted a lot of attention because of their unique and excellent properties and became major hot research. They are regarded as the most promising materials in the 21st century. With the growth of industrial production, photocatalytic technology has been pursued as an efficient, green, and economical way of industrial production and treatment of pollution. However, the low light energy utilization of traditional semiconductor materials is a drawback that cannot be ignored. Graphene, as one of the most common and widely used 2D nanomaterials, has a special structure and characteristics that can effectively solve this problem. The paper briefly introduces the structure, properties, preparation method, and basic principle of photocatalysis of graphene. At the same time, a review is provided on the application of graphene-based composite materials in the field of photocatalysis, including dye degradation, photocatalytic treatment of other emerging pollutants, photocatalytic treatment of air pollutants, and water decomposition. By summarizing and integrating the photocatalytic properties of several graphene-based composites, this article lays the foundation and helps to discover new graphene composites.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240912

    Optical and electrical properties and applications of two-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials

    As an emerging material, two-dimensional (2D) carbon-based nanomaterials have unique optical and electrical properties due to their unique atomic layer structure. On the one hand, due to their high transmittance, high carrier mobility, controllable Fermi level, and wide spectral light saturation absorption characteristics, they can be applied in new-generation solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, touch screens, and fiber optic devices. On the other hand, due to their unique nanostructure, they have high specific surface area, low diffusion distance, high conductivity, and ion conductivity. They can serve as substrates and work together with other materials as electrode materials for future fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries and have significant advantages in fields such as sensors. This article mainly summarizes the impact of two-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials represented by graphene, Mxene, and 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) on their optical and electrical properties, and summarizes the latest practical applications and research progress of these nanomaterials in the field of optics and electronics. In addition, a corresponding summary and outlook have been made on the problems that need to be solved in future applications of 2D carbon-based nanomaterials.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240913

    Applications of nanomaterials in medicine against cancer

    Nowadays, all walks of life are developing with innovation at their core, and the subject of materials is no exception, while nanomaterials occupy an important position in the emerging field due to their unique properties and wide coverage. In addition, the incidence of cancer, a difficult disease with a very high mortality rate, is increasing day by day. Therefore, research on cancer has received extensive attention from society. Therefore, this paper explores how cancer can be treated by means of nanomaterials through the organization of current research and papers in the field. Research at this stage suggests that nanomaterials play a major auxiliary role in anti-cancer technology, as follows: enhancing the ability of other substances to disrupt cell membranes, assisting in the delivery of anti-tumor drugs, improving imaging capabilities, and enhancing the ability of some substances to inhibit tumor growth through specific mechanisms. In future research, the focus will be on minimizing the side effects of the treatment and improving its safety.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240916

    Current progress in micro/nanofluidic chips and applications in cancer research and therapy

    Micro/nanofluidic chips have set a new stage for cancer research and therapy, revolutionising the way we detect, diagnose, and treat this formidable disease. This paper provides an overview of the basic properties of micro/nanofluidic chips and current progress in the utilization of micro/nanofluidic chips in the realm of cancer. Their application in DNA and protein analysis, their role in cancer modelling and drug testing, and their innovative use in drug-eluting devices for cancer immunotherapy are discussed. The advantages and limitations of these technologies are evaluated, shedding light on the challenges and opportunities. Having the potential for earlier and more accurate diagnosis, novel therapy methods with better outcomes and less side-effects, more advancement and further breakthroughs can be anticipated in tackling tumours with micro/nanofluidic chips. In future development, it is suggested that combinations of such chips and various other emerging technologies can be attempted and explored for inventing more innovative and functional micro/nanofluidic devices, making a difference in the field of cancer research and therapy. Simultaneously, more improvement such as enhancing reproducibility and affordability is also necessarily required to realise the clinical trial, mass production, commercialisation of these chips.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240918

    The application of nanotechnology in the field of lithium-ion battery

    Nanotechnology, with its remarkable progress, has permeated various aspects of daily life, highlighting its crucial role in shaping the world. One of its most significant applications is in the realm of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), where it holds the potential to dramatically enhance battery performance. This application is studied extensively both in the industry and academia. As the use of LIBs becomes more widespread, the demand for these batteries continues to rise. This paper will primarily focus on the utilization of nanotechnology within the LIB sector. This paper will delve into its applications across various components, including the cathode and anode. Furthermore, this paper will explore the potential future applications of nanotechnology in this field, examining how it can revolutionize energy storage technologies. The integration of nanotechnology not only enhances the performance of LIBs but also opens doors to innovative solutions that can address the growing energy demands of the modern society.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240920

    Research on the application of BIM technology in intelligent building technology

    With the continuous progress of society and science, building technology is also developing in the direction of intelligence, and the introduction of BIM technology has greatly promoted the development of intelligent buildings in China. The application of BIM technology in the field of intelligent construction is of great significance. It optimises project quality management, accelerates the building delivery process, and improves the operation and maintenance management efficiency of buildings. It is foreseeable that with the arrival of the intelligent era, BIM technology will continue to play an important role and bring more opportunities and challenges to the construction industry. Relevant practitioners should also actively learn and apply this technology to promote the development of the construction industry. This paper is based on a number of typical engineering cases, analyses a large number of existing literature, and reads various working reports and policies issued by the government. It introduces the role of BIM technology in project quality management, intelligent construction delivery and operation and maintenance management, with a view to providing reference for relevant practitioners.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240921

    Melanin nanoparticles scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals for rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex and chronic disease that often causes long-term pain and joint swelling in patients, and even causes joint deformity and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of this disease involves abnormal activity of the immune system, causing immune cells to attack the body’s joint tissues, which triggers an inflammatory response. During these inflammatory processes, the accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is considered to be one of the key factors that aggravate inflammation and damage joint tissues. To address this problem, we designed a method that takes advantage of the targeting properties of melanin nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility, can remain stable in the body, and can be accurately targeted to the site of inflammation. In addition, these nanoparticles also have strong free radical scavenging ability, which can effectively neutralize excessive RONS, reduce the inflammatory response and weaken joint tissue damage. The promise of this treatment strategy is encouraging and offers new hope for patients with RA. By reducing inflammation, protecting joint tissue, and possibly even reversing the disease process to some extent, this melanin nanoparticle holds great promise.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240922

    Exploring attributes of global CCS projects and the key factors to their accomplishment based on the CCUS project database

    In recent decades, the serious excessive level of carbon emissions has become the worthiest of human consideration to alleviate the problem. The negative impacts of carbon emissions on human beings involve a variety of aspects, such as sea level rise, deforestation, air pollution, global warming, etc. Any one of these issues could cause serious negative impacts on human society. In a large number of relevant studies, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) programs are considered to be the most promising and effective approach. The carbon produced during production is captured and transported to rock formations deep underground where it is centrally stored. There are nearly 300 CCS plants in operation around the world that demonstrate the feasibility of such projects. However, one relevant question is whether the project is costly and has barriers to deploy at a scale. We gathered a comprehensive list of large-scale CCS projects globally by utilizing the CCUS Projects Database. We then conducted a comparative analysis of these projects across various categories of project status, ensuring comparability by standardizing cost and extraction figures for each project. We found that the cost of Capture and Storage Projects is the highest, followed by just Capture Projects and just Storage Projects. These plants predominantly exist in developed regions: the U.S. hosts the most, then Europe, parts of Australia, with fewer plants scattered globally. Based on detailed project-specific information, we found that that the two most common reasons for suspended or closed plants are high costs without sufficient financial support and the impact of government agencies’ permissions and regulation. As such, improvement in the capital market and more policy support would be crucial for the deployment and operation of Carbon Capture and Storage projects.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240924

    Research on the analysis and management measures of land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Tianjin, China

    Since the 20th century, there has been an increasing reliance on groundwater due to the rapid development of agriculture and industry. This has resulted in the exploitation of groundwater in large quantities, leading to global land subsidence problems. Tianjin is one of the cities where this problem first emerged, but few studies and surveys have been conducted. As a result, the lack of management of groundwater extraction has caused the issue of land subsidence to become more prominent in recent years. By investigating and collating global research on land subsidence problems caused by groundwater extraction, it is concluded that mathematical and numerical methods, global information systems, remote sensing, and other technologies can be utilized to monitor and predict groundwater levels. Regional management measures can then be developed based on simulation results. However, the application of such technology in Tianjin is insufficient, and there is a need to strengthen the connection between management measures and research data analysis results.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240925

    A review of the application of FRP materials in Asia-Pacific region

    FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers) materials are being increasingly used in various engineering fields due to their high specific strength, designability and durability. Having been rapidly developing in recent years, the Asia-Pacific region is also equipped with a continuously expanding demand for the research and application of FRP materials. This paper summarizes the application of FRP materials in the Asia-Pacific region through literature and case analysis. Some of the current issues existing in the procedure of FPR materials application are discussed, and predictions on the development and application prospects of this kind of materials in the Asia-Pacific region are also briefly suggested. It is found that FRP materials have been widely utilized in various fields including concrete structures reinforcement, bridge engineering construction and new energy facilities in the Asia-Pacific region, where is equipped with a relatively broad and promising market. Meanwhile, the shortcomings relevant to this kind of materials in several aspects, such as expensive unit prices and imperfect technical specification systems, also restricted the application of FRP materials in this region.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240926

    Monitoring of urban expansion in Burlington based on remote sensing data

    Burlington VT has been expanding in the last few decades due to new immigrants moving into the area for opportunities. Accurate and comprehensive data on the landscape, vegetation coverage, and human activities are essential for knowing the current status of the city and its surrounding environment and for planning the future city expansion by the government. The current study employed remote sensing as the currently most advanced method to measure and monitor the landscape changes and urban expansion of the Burlington area between 2015 and 2023. The results from the remote sensing clearly showed that the lake shape changed, the wasteland areas decreased and the human activities expanded in the Burlington area between the year 2015 and the current year. These clear trends supported by the satellite images and the potential correlation between these trends provide valuable information for city regulators to decide how the city should be expanded, how the environment should be protected, and what issues need to be addressed in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240929

    A review of the emerging technologies in solar cells: Dye-sensitized solar cells and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    In the current energy crisis, more efficient and clean energy sources are needed to help move the primary energy source away from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and are shown to be unsustainable. Efforts have been made in many fields surrounding renewable energy sources, with wind power, hydropower, and nuclear power being the well-known ones. Solar power is another field that has shown tremendous promise in being a clean, renewable energy source. Dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs) and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells(QDSSCs) have significantly advanced over the past 30 years. They are showing great potential as the production cost for DSSCs drops and the efficiency of QDSSCs rises with every passing year. This article shows the primary working mechanism of the two solar cells, compares them, and discusses their prospect of them.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240930

    High throughput screening of thermal interface materials by machine learning

    Till now, it remains a challenge for effective prediction and screening of novel materials with high thermal conductivity, as well as further optimization of the interface thermal resistance. Normally, people have to spend long time on tedious calculations when predicting and screening these materials. In this paper, I combined machine learning with molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductive properties of materials with the aim of significantly reducing computational consumption. I first applied molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the relevant properties of materials, then generated models for predicting physical properties by machine learning, and finally made predictions of thermophysical properties of materials. The use of machine learning significantly reduces the prediction time compared to direct molecular dynamics simulations. Especially when the XGBoost and the neural network models are employed, the prediction efficiency is significantly improved. This work guides a new way for the future screening of high-performance thermal interface materials.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240931

    Spatiotemporal evolutions and reasons of land-use carbon emissions in counties, Shaanxi Province, China

    Global warming caused by factors such as the expansion of construction land poses a major threat to the sustainable development of China. As an important component of China's low-carbon development strategy, there is a relative lack of analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of land-use carbon emissions and the influencing factors at county-level. In this study, we employed Emission-Factor Approach to estimate carbon emissions from land use in 107 counties, Shaanxi province, China. Our findings revealed construction land were the primary contributors to carbon emissions, showing a substantial increase from 2000 to 2020. There was positive spatial autocorrelation in carbon emissions among counties, forming distinct aggregation patterns around the City of Xi'an and both the southern and northern regions of Shaanxi. By utilizing the Spatial Durbin Error Model (SDEM), demographic factors emerged as key drivers of carbon emissions, indicating the significance of addressing population concentration to curb emissions. Furthermore, promoting coordinated development and adjusting the economic structure in different counties can mitigate both population concentration and carbon emissions. Emphasizing industrial development and investments can also effectively suppress carbon emissions. Additionally, managing transportation-related emissions can be achieved by enhancing public transportation services and regulating private car usage.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240932

    Analysis and control measures of vibration and noise sources in urban rail transit under the perspective of standard governance

    With the rapid and large-scale development of rail transit engineering in China, the vibration and noise problems caused by rail transit operations are increasingly receiving widespread attention from all sectors of society. This paper is based on literature research and comprehensively analyzes the vibration and noise sources of urban rail transit. It systematically analyzes the composition, characteristics, and causes of vibration and noise in rail transit, and provides systematic governance measures for vibration and noise reduction in rail transit from two aspects: noise sources and propagation paths. The research results of this article have significant reference value for the engineering practice of vibration and noise reduction in rail transit.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240934

    Preview of CO2 utilization in converting to methanol process

    Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, has contributed to environmental issues on the planet in the past few years. Thus, it would be helpful to mitigate the impact that caused by carbon footprint, which is trying to reduce the carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere and utilize it to generate green products for usage. It has been reported that CO_2 reduction could be converted to a valuable fuel source and thus it could be a potential solution to mitigate the impact of CO_2. In this paper, it illustrates three underlying approaches which are conventional heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis and electrochemical, and flaws existed inCO_2 converted to CH_3 OH production. Approach mechanism, principles and barriers are included in the following with detailed product selectivity/yield comparison between different catalysts under various conditions. Studies on different approaches have made substantial information focusing on various aspects and recommending the appropriate catalyst for the technique under the specific scenario. Finally, the overview of the research aims to provide feedback on progress made in CH_3 OH production from CO_2 in a large scale along with a summary regarding the future expectations on the research of the methanol conversion approaches developed.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240936

    Research on the assessment of technical methods to suppress auger recombination

    Human demand for fossil fuels has reached a very high level. However, fossil energy stocks are limited and, more importantly, their impact on the environment is increasing. The exploration of clean energy is particularly important. Among all the clean energy sources, solar energy is a very promising and important alternative to fossil fuels. And one of the primary reasons for the failure of solar photovoltaic cells to achieve rapid development is the generation of Auger composite. In order to provide support to solve this problem or facilitate the follow-up of researchers, this paper summarizes several effective methods such as Interfacial Engineering and Gradient Alloying to solve the Auger recombination problem in multi-exciton photovoltaic cells through reading and comparing a large number of relevant authoritative literature. The two methods mentioned above suppress Auger recombination by applying a new type of MXene (Nb2CTX-MXene) to the interface of SnO2 layers to pssivate the interfacial defects and promote charge transport and to generate InAs/CdSe core/shell QDs, overcoating InAs QDs with a lattice-matched CdSe shell. Comparing a large number of pieces of literature, it is found that the above two methods have guiding effects in improving the efficiency of photovoltaic cells.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240937

    Characteristics and properties of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries (LIBs) are battery systems with high energy densities. They are essential components of today’s information-rich, mobile society’s portable, entertainment, computing, and telecommunications technology. After 1981, most of the research on anode materials mainly focused on the anode containing Li, such as LiAl alloy, LiC alloy, etc. These materials have high prices, unstable cycling performance, and are difficult to be commercialized. The successful commercialization of LIBs began in 1991 with SONY’s manufacturing of petroleum coke-based anode materials. Among them, anode plays a crucial role in LIBs. Anode materials that have been commercialized include carbon, alloys, and lithium titanate. Lithium-ion batteries using carbon anode materials and lithium titanate anode materials can meet the needs of electric vehicles (EVs) and large-scale energy storage applications to a certain extent, and alloy anode materials can promote the energy density of LIBs. The properties of the commercialized anode materials are covered in this paper. Next generation anode materials such as silicon anode materials are also introduced.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240938

    Common methodologies for treating environmental issues with nanomaterials

    With rapid industrialisation and population growth, the Earth’s ecological environment now confronts increasingly complex and diverse challenges. Traditional pollution treatment methods, such as activated sludge for sewage and electrostatic precipitation for air pollution, can effectively manage most environmental pollution. However, some pollutants (e.g. metals, organic dyes, gaseous trace pollutants in heavy water) either cannot be addressed by conventional methods or are prohibitively expensive. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop new environmental technologies. The emergence and development of nanotechnology and nanoscience present novel opportunities for environmental governance, as nanomaterials offer advantageous traits such as high specific surface area, catalytic activity, and photocatalytic activity. This renders nanomaterials better adsorbents, catalysts, and sensors compared to traditional materials. This article examines three methods - adsorption, filtration, and degradation - through which nanomaterials can be utilised to address environmental challenges, and the advantages and disadvantages of such methods are discussed. Finally, this article provides insights in response to the findings presented.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-08 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/61/20240939

    An analysis of seashell calcium carbonate dissolution caused by ocean acidification based on chemistry equilibrium

    Ocean acidification is a serious marine ecosystem problem caused by the abundant human emission of CO2. It is now a prevalent cognition that the dissolution of CO2 tends to raise the concentration of H+ in the ocean and therefore make it more acidic. Anthropogenic CO2 emission exacerbates the situation. This will then lead to another obvious problem---the dissolution of calcium carbonate shells of certain ocean organisms. This article will present a brief dissolution model, which can provide an analysis of the acidification effects from two perspectives---both the forming and the dissolution of seashells. The model shows an exponential relationship between the dissolved Ca2+ concentration and the pH of seawater. It also presents the anticipation regarding a dissolution turning point in (approximately) 2090 under the RCP8.5 scenario. This turning point indicates an abrupt acceleration of calcium carbonate shells’ dissolution. The result depicts the drastic but possible change in the seawater solution system and gives a warning signal of a probable deadline for us to control the CO2 emission. Hopefully, it will attract more scholars to pay attention to this topic and figure out methodologies to avoid the possible tragedy.

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