Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Mechatronics and Smart Systems

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-231-2 (Print)

    978-1-83558-232-9 (Online)

    Published Date



    Seyed Ghaffar, Brunel University London

    Alan Wang, University of Auckland


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230004

    Artificial intelligence in the construction sector

    The application of artificial intelligence in the construction industry is divided into two main areas: 1. Using new technologies such as big data, cloud computing and the Internet of Things to optimise building design and management and provide users with a better living environment and service experience. 2. Using artificial intelligence technology to carry out intelligent building operation and maintenance, reduce the number of construction site operators and improve the efficiency of the construction site. Based on the analysis of the application scenarios in these two aspects, the application of artificial intelligence in the field of construction has a broad prospect. Especially with the continuous development and improvement of the Internet of Things and big data technology, artificial intelligence can better enhance the quality of intelligent buildings.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230025

    Powertrain structure analysis of extended range electric vehicles

    Since its invention, the internal combustion engine has greatly contributed to the development of human civilization and is also an important symbol of the progress of human civilization. The energy and environmental problems brought by traditional automobiles have seriously restricted the development of today's automotive industry. Due to the bottleneck of pure electric vehicle power battery technology, its short range and short battery life, the extended range electric vehicle is a smooth transition model of the pure electric vehicle, with its high efficiency, small battery capacity, long driving range and other advantages have received widespread attention. In this paper, the key technical issues, including the component selection, parameter matching, and control strategy of the extended-range electric vehicle drive system, are analyzed and discussed in detail. Several issues worthy of attention in future research are pointed out in the paper and provide insights for further development of extended-range electric vehicles.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230026

    The prospect of chassis structure design for new energy battery electric vehicles

    More focus has been placed on creating new energy cars that are safer and more energy-efficient due to the development of new energy vehicle technologies and their strategic importance in addressing current energy and environmental issues. The chassis system's primary components, whether for a conventional fuel vehicle or a new energy vehicle, are the braking, suspension, and steering subsystems. The functioning, comfort, and safety of modern energy vehicles are strongly correlated to their structural design. At the moment, the design of new energy vehicle chassis is mostly based on refining and adapting the chassis of conventional fuel vehicles. However, new energy vehicles have distinct driving systems compared to conventional vehicles. Thus it is important to account for these variations in the layout and make it compatible with the whole system. The chassis structural design of new energy cars is more adaptable and affects vehicle performance compared to fuel-powered vehicles. The integrated battery and high amount of unsprung mass affect the center of gravity and stability of the new energy vehicle. The coordination and collaboration between the power battery module and the chassis construction must therefore be carefully considered, as well as their effects on the entire vehicle performance, including its safety and economic effectiveness. In conclusion, thoroughly examining the chassis structure design plan for new energy vehicles is crucial for advancing these vehicles.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230030

    Current status of power system for unmanned aerial vehicle fuel cell under different scenarios

    With the increasingly wide application of the unmanned aerial vehicle, a new power resource is in urgent demand in the market. Domestic and foreign researchers have also done much research on how to improve the power system. Considering the energy density, gravimetric specific power, economic benefits and environmental protection, fuel cell becomes the best choice to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle endurance. The gravimetric specific power of fuel cells is low, and it is difficult to cope with the large range fluctuation of load power when the UAV performs complex flight tasks. After comparing the performance and products of various types of fuel cells, the cathode open air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell is chosen as the most suitable one for UAVs. This paper will illustrate how fuel cell and battery hybrid power system works and introduce their structure. At the end of the paper, some conclusions and prospects for the development of UAV power systems are also made.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230052

    Application of DC-DC power module in electric vehicle system

    DC-DC power module has been increasingly widely used in car manufacturing industry and studied by scientists due to its crucial role in electric vehicles. It has two major functions. One is to provide electric power that motivates the power steering system, air conditioning, and other auxiliary equipment; the other is to operate in a hybrid electric source system by connecting with super-capacitors in series in a circuit, which performs a function of regulating power source output, as well as stabilizing the DC voltage bus. This review aims to investigate the fundamental principle of DC-DC converter, to comprehensively review the different types of DC-DC power modules and their characteristics, as well as their advantages and limitations. In addition, to discuss the major challenges existing in this system currently, and the potential it has for future developments, which refers to the power output efficiency of the system when it is applied in electric vehicles. Finally, to demonstrate some real-life applications of this module, the representative examples of firms successfully applying this power module into production. This paper has a guiding significance for acknowledging the current state of development of DC-DC power modules in the electric vehicle system, and for studying some related research fields.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230064

    Analysis of path planning of UAV in short-distance logistics application

    China's e-commerce sector has grown quickly in recent years, and the logistics sector has grown to be a significant sector of the national economy. Meanwhile, the business volume of the logistics industry has also increased continuously. The characteristics of intelligence and informatization of short-distance logistics UAVs, advantages such as high efficiency and not being constrained by road grids and related technical applications can greatly save manpower and time in logistics and transportation, so that the goods can be transported to the receiving place faster. Therefore, UAVs are an important part of the logistics field, among them, the path planning of UAVs is an important technical component to ensure the transportation of goods. This article first introduces the importance of UAV path planning technology in the field of short-distance logistics. Secondly, the path planning of UAVs in short-distance logistics applications is divided into two categories. The overview and analysis are carried out from the two aspects of traditional mathematical algorithm and bionic algorithm. Meanwhile, based on the available information, the benefits and drawbacks of the available methods are examined. Then, based on MATLAB, two classical methods are selected from the traditional mathematical algorithm and the bionic algorithm to carry out path planning simulation experiments in scenarios of different complexity, and the results are analyzed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the above two algorithms are summarized and analyzed, and the prospect of UAV citation in short-distance logistics is prospected.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230075

    Performance analysis of machine learning methods for short-term traffic prediction

    With the rapid development of urbanization and the rapid increase of the number of motor vehicles, the problem of urban traffic congestion has become increasingly prominent. The accurate prediction of short-term traffic flow is considered as a promising solution, which can provide a key decision-making basis for route planning and traffic flow scheduling, so that can greatly alleviate or even prevent congestion. Researchers have used many machine learning methods to predict traffic flow, but few people pay attention to the boundaries of different machine algorithms. In this paper, we use AdaBoost, Random Forest, SVM and BP neural network to predict short-term traffic flow in California, which aims to compare the differences in prediction performance of different algorithms and analyze their potential reasons. The results show that, the integration methods such as AdaBoost and Random Forest are quite appropriate to solve the short-term traffic flow, which can obtain an accuracy more than 95%, while prediction made by SVM is less precise than the two aforementioned methods with a 79% accuracy. And BP neural network may be inappropriate if the parameters remain default. The different results are due to the periodicity of the database. Integration methods can recognize the periodicity while the SVM and BP neural network fail to do it. When employing the SVM and BP neural network, the datasets need to be divided within a period to avoid being disturbed by cyclically. Besides, the precise of BP neural network can be improved when adjusting the parameters to the optimal.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230117

    Research progress on lightweight technology of exoskeleton robot

    Exoskeleton robots are wearable devices designed to mimic the skeletal mechanisms of insects and humans Enhancing users’ body functioning. In recent years, exoskeleton robot has become one of the hot spots in military and medical fields. In the process of exoskeleton robot research and development, how to achieve lightweight exoskeleton robot design is the goal of many research and development teams. Lightweight design is of significant importance in the development of exoskeleton robots since it can increase their efficiency and portability. With the improvement of modern processing technology, the lightweight technology of exoskeleton robot is becoming more and more mature. This paper summarizes the mature and promising lightweight technology of exoskeleton robot at present. In this paper, based on existing exoskeleton robots, the lightweight technology of these robots is analysed and reviewed in terms of their drive devices, power supply, structures and materials, and future development trends of the technology are suggested. This paper offers a reference the lightweight design of exoskeleton robot.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230129

    FDM 3D printer temperature control system based on PID control

    With the continuous development of manufacturing technology today, the emerging technology of 3D printing is becoming more mature, and the surface accuracy and quality of printed products are receiving increasing attention from users. The stability and appropriateness of the nozzle temperature have a significant impact on the quality of the prints. This project focuses on the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer as the research subject, introduces the structure types of FDM 3D printers, and addresses the temperature control issue of FDM printers by using PID control for improvement. By applying SIMULINK to model and simulate the nozzle temperature control system, the simulation results of PID control are analyzed and compared. The results show that PID control shortens the stabilization time, improving the stability and control accuracy of the control system. PID control can enhance the temperature control accuracy of FDM printers, thus improving the precision and surface quality of the printed products.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230131

    Principles and examples of drag reduction in civil airliners

    Civil aviation has grown rapidly over the past hundred years as demand from air travellers has increased. Since the mid to late 20th century, there have been recurring global energy crises due to political and economic upheavals. In this international context, airlines have tended to operate less draggy, more fuel efficient aircraft in order to maximise profits through fuel cost savings . To this end, aircraft manufacturers have historically tried a variety of methods to address the issue of drag reduction.This paper highlights the importance of three drag reduction methods utilized on modern subsonic airliners by introducing their basic principle and evaluating their effectiveness based on previous research and typical experiments. This paper summarizes and analyzes different approaches to reduce drag in civil aviation. It first investigates the principle behind frictional, induced, and profile drag in theoretical aspects. It then discusses in detail the biomimicry microstructure based on shark skin and its uniqueness on aircraft fuselage’s surface to reduce frictional drag, the split scimitar winglet and its ideal performance to reduce induced drag when compared with other wingtip devices with different cant angles. The newly introduced adaptive lifting surface changes the wing’s geometric configuration momentarily, and its ability to reduce profile drag at different stages of flight. This paper also comprehensively compares both the benefits and potential compromises of these drag reduction methods.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230133

    Analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft during take-off and landing

    Take-off and landing are the most critical phases of flight, as they require the pilot's utmost attention and skill. Through force analysis, we can determine the main factors that affect aircraft take-off and landing performance. By understanding these factors, we can improve the safety and efficiency of air travel. During take-off and landing, lift, weight, thrust, and drag work together to give rise to the aircraft's resultant motion and angle of attack. By analysing these forces, we can determine the aircraft's speed and altitude during these critical phases. Ground friction is a factor that is often neglected in theoretical analysis but has a significant effect on aircraft performance in reality. Friction between the wheels and the runway affects the braking of the aircraft after it begins to decelerate on the runway, making it essential for a secure landing. Accurately measuring the friction coefficient can help prevent accidents, particularly in severe weather conditions. Investigating these factors can aid in improving aircraft performance, achieving better energy efficiency, and meeting modern society's needs for safe and efficient air travel. By considering these factors, we can enhance the safety and efficiency of aircraft take-off and landing, ensuring a more reliable and enjoyable travel experience for all.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230140

    Applications of visual perception techniques using neural networks in autonomous driving

    The perception system and the decision system are important components of a complete autonomous driving vehicle. The perception system can help the decision system to obtain the necessary information of external environment and vehicle status. The traditional perception system mainly relies on the on-board radar. But in recent years, vision-based perception techniques have become a hot research topic. Meanwhile, thanks to the excellent performance of neural networks in processing image data, the processing algorithms for visual perception images have also made great progress. Visual perception techniques can not only acquire more information, but also is more cost effective and easier to install. This paper provides an overview of the more mature and promising visual perception techniques, including their principles and data processing algorithms, in terms of acquiring 2D image data and 3D depth information. For acquiring 2D image data, this paper introduces the principle of event camera and reviews the current progress on the event camera. Regarding the acquisition of 3D depth information, three techniques are introduced, namely binocular stereo-vision, time of flight (TOF), and structured light. Their performance when combined with neural networks for autonomous driving applications is also reviewed. Finally, this paper lists the current dilemmas faced by the above 2D and 3D imaging techniques and the possible solutions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230185

    The memristor: Principle, mechanism, and application

    The memristor is an electronic device and the only fundamental circuit element that can directly implement memory and logic computation between electronic devices. The main characteristic of the memristor is that its resistance value varies with the direction and magnitude of the current flowing through it, and this variation is reversible. It can store charge, similar to RAM in traditional computers, but with more energy-efficient, faster, and higher-density storage. Therefore, the memristor is attracting attention in the research of artificial intelligence and neural networks. This paper summarizes the mathematical principles and application scenarios of memristive systems, including ideal memristors. two theoretically mature resistance change mechanisms are summarized, namely the con-ductive filament model (mainly for RRAM, Resistive random-access Finally, the design of memristor-related circuit components and the current state of research in artificial intelli-gence, especially in the field of neural networks, are reviewed. The authors are optimistic about the future development of memristors for medium and low power edge computing platforms and believe that memristors will become one of the computing platforms for ar-tificial intelligence.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230188

    Design and optimization of formula racing car body and aerodynamic kits

    Formula SAE (FSAE) is a globally influential automotive design and manufacturing competition sponsored by colleges and universities.As the motive power of the car is strictly limited by the rules, the aerodynamic optimization of the body is an extremely important aspect to improve the performance. In this article, the influence of designing parameters of aerodynamic kits and the whole body on the negative lift and air resistance is explored. Also, 3D components has been established and simulation results are used to optimize the body shape, combined with the aerodynamic components to achieve the purpose of pressurization and resistance reduction. The results show that the body and aerodynamics kits design can significantly improve the speed and driving stability of the car. This article may offer a reference for the design optimization of racing cars.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230190

    Sequential recommendation based on graph transformer

    Sequential Recommendation (SR) is an important scenario in recommendation tasks. Sequential recommendations model the sequential pattern between item-item or user-item based on a user's recent activity in a time series to predict their next preference. However, existing methods are based only on the conventional Graph Neural Networks (GNN) as a model architecture for adaptive fine-tuning of specific SR tasks. To get better recommendation results, more advanced GNNs can be used as the network architecture of the SR method. This paper introduces graph transformer, a combination of GNN and a good sequential task processing model. Then a cross-sectional comparison is made with the current SR method model and its suitability for application in SR tasks is discussed. The comparison shows that the graph transformer is similar in principle and structure to the current SR models, and requires the addition of some adaptive components to be applied in SR tasks. The superior performance after application can be demonstrated from the results data of the Benchmarking-GNNs and Long-Range Graph Benchmark on the models.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230231

    Speed control of direct current motors using proportional integral controllers

    Proportional integral(PI) controllers is widely used in direct current(DC) motor controlling in factories, requiring tuning of their parameters to achieve optimal performance. New tuning techniques may be developed with the aid of research, which can speed up and simplify the tuning process. This work examined the use of PI controllers to regulate the speed of DC motors. TinkerCad modelling and Falstad circuit simulation are used to simulate the circuit model. Two well-known methods, step response and root locus, were implemented and assessed using Octave Online. Results demonstrate that, provided the KP value is not excessively high, increasing KP can enhance the stability of the DC motor close-loop system. The goal of the research is to balance the system's oscillation and stability while determining the appropriate KP value for the PI controller in this closed-loop system. This research uses octave online to analysis the root locus and close loop positions in pole-zero maps and creates the step responses of the system with different parameters of the PI controller.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230269

    ECG circuit design and analysis algorithm

    Nowadays, many people have a sub-health lifestyle: poor diet, lack of exercise, high pressure, inadequate sleep, long periods of sitting, etc. All the unhealthy behaviours will lead to chronic disease, especially heart disease. People then use wearable devices like Apple Watch to monitor their heartbeat and try to find out if anything goes wrong in advance. This paper is then going to introduce how wearable devices detect the heartbeat from two perspectives. The hardware part gives a detailed implementation of a complete design of circuits within the wearable device used to detect heartbreak. The circuit is designed to be power-efficient, resistant to noise, and capable of amplifying the input voltage by about 100 times. The circuit design would contain three main parts: the human body circuit, the three-amplifier system, and the filter system. For each part, detailed information about how to choose the value of components is provided, and how the chosen value of components meets the requirement is also illustrated. On the other hand, it will introduce three algorithms used to analyze the ECG signals output from the circuit.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230298

    Application of SLAM technology combined with AR in minimally invasive surgery

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is revolutionizing the medical field, offering patients faster recovery times and reduced risk of complications. However, MIS demands precise navigation and visualization of the surgical site, which can be challenging due to the limited field of view and constrained working space. In this study, we investigate the integration of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technology with augmented reality (AR) to enhance the capabilities of MIS and improve surgical outcomes. SLAM technology enables real-time 3D mapping and tracking of the surgical environment, while AR overlays crucial information, such as anatomical structures and surgical guidance, onto the surgeon's view. The proposed system combines these technologies to create a comprehensive, interactive representation of the patient's anatomy, providing surgeons with a more intuitive and accurate understanding of the surgical site. We assess the performance of the integrated SLAM-AR system based on a review of relevant literature, focusing on its accuracy, usability, and impact on surgical efficiency. The findings suggest that the SLAM-AR system has the potential to significantly improve spatial awareness and navigation during MIS, potentially reducing procedure times and complication rates. Furthermore, the system shows promise for enhancing surgeon training and promoting the adoption of MIS techniques in various surgical fields.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230354

    Introduction of Gate-All-Around FET (GAAFET)

    The Gate-All-Around Field-Effect Transistor (GAAFET) represents a significant advancement in integrated circuits technology, offering enhanced functionality compared to its predecessor, the Fin Field-Effect Transistor (FinFET). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of GAAEFT, its historical developments, current state, and recent developments. The introduction section mentioned the importance of changing from FinFET to GAAFET structures. The historical developments section traces the evolution of GAAFET technology, highlighting key milestones and breakthroughs. The current state section addresses the limitations of silicon-based microelectronics technology, including challenges related to heat dissipation, reliability, and fabrication processes. The subsequent section explores the development of GAAFET technology, with a focus on the latest techniques, such as gate stacking, oxidation, and asymmetric non-local lateral Gaussian doping, which aim to improve electrostatic performance, mitigate short-channel effects, and enhance threshold voltage control. This work reveals the potential for the current and future development of GAAFET technology and its potential for wider application in integrated circuits design and fabrication.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/28/20230362

    Current perspective of brain-computer interfaces in arm exoskeletons

    With the development of world scientific level, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have become possible from the Arabian Nights. It has been achieved that humans do not need to act, but only use their thoughts to manipulate machines. Currently, many people are attempting to combine brain-computer interfaces with arm exoskeletons to assist humans who have lost mobility. This paper will interpret the literature on brain computer interface technology retrieved in the past five years, and summarize the current development and application of this technology in the world. Research has found that the literature on this technology has been increasing every year in recent years. The United States is in a leading position in this field, with research results and publications leading the world. At present, the development level of this technology is very considerable, and some people have already experienced the convenience brought by this technology. However, overall, the technology combining brain-computer interfaces with arm exoskeletons is not yet perfect. There are still many aspects that can be refined. This paper aims to provide a reference for further research and application in this field, and to provide useful references and ideas for workers and researchers in related fields.

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