Applied and Computational Engineering

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    Conference Date

    2024-01-13

    Website

    https://www.confmcee.org/

    Notes

     

    ISBN

    978-1-83558-417-0 (Print)

    978-1-83558-418-7 (Online)

    Published Date

    2024-05-09

    Editors

    Seyed Ghaffar, University of Birmingham

Articles

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240624

    Jilin city central wastewater treatment plant renovation design scheme

    Jilin City is one of the top ten famous Chinese cities worth introducing to the world. To further improve the construction of urban infrastructure and meet the needs of the economic and social development of Jilin City, the Jilin City Government Joint Development and Reform Commission and the Ecological Environment Bureau decided to expand and renovate the former Jilin City wastewater treatment plant. This study designs a wastewater treatment plant by comprehensively considering the policy needs and the local basic background characteristics of Jilin to solve the wastewater overflow problem. The design modified the anaerobic tank and Carroussel oxidation ditch processes, which have more advantages than traditional treatment processes, mainly including better BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency, less power consumption, and lower operating costs. This treatment plant design contains two special characteristics: the design considers the overall plan and pipeline layout of the wastewater treatment plant, and the size data of each module are calculated through theoretical study conforming to the real case.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240967

    Utilizing mycelium-based materials for sustainable construction

    Mycelium-based materials have gained significant attention in recent years as a sustainable alternative for construction in civil engineering projects. This literature review aims to explore the utilization of mycelium-based materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation in construction practices. The review examines various studies and research articles to understand the potential of mycelium-based materials in reducing carbon emissions in the construction industry. The findings indicate that mycelium-based materials offer promising opportunities for sustainable construction, as they have the ability to sequester CO2 during their growth process. Additionally, mycelium-based materials possess desirable properties such as lightweight, fire resistance, and thermal insulation, making them suitable for structural and non-structural applications. The review also identifies the challenges and limitations associated with the implementation of mycelium-based materials in construction. Overall, this literature review provides valuable insights into the application of mycelium-based materials for carbon dioxide mitigation in civil engineering projects.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240988

    Wind speed prediction

    With the help of wind farms, wind energy is a vital renewable energy source that contributes significantly to the world’s energy balance. The lifespan and maintenance costs of wind turbines will be reduced with an accurate wind speed prediction. On the other hand, wind speed is highly volatile and unpredictable. Thus, it is essential to do research into creating complex models and algorithms for precise wind speed prediction. So far, some of the most promising models include Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA). Python, as an advanced and versatile programming language, is exceptionally suited for scripting the algorithms of these sophisticated models. This paper will use the data from Austin Texas and apply a Support Vector Machine (SVM) for wind speed prediction involves several stages, including data collection, data preprocessing, model selection, model training, parameter optimization, model validation, and prediction. Wind energy resource optimisation, maintenance cost reduction, and total wind farm efficiency can all be significantly improved by incorporating these models into predictive analytics and continuously improving them against changing data.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240989

    Applications of graphene in organic anticorrosive coatings

    The problem of corrosion of materials has lasted for a long time, corrosion causes damage to the structure of buildings and bringing loss of economy. The coating method, which is an easy and economical way to solve the problem, is still unable to satisfy the needs limited by the paints’ properties. However, this can be solved by introducing graphene, by its special 2-D material properties, to the paint. And a lot of researchers are working on this now. This paper mainly focuses on the overview of how graphene be applied to anti-corrosive coatings, the problems that are faced, what are solutions for those, and what are the advantages that graphene has in the area. Resulting that graphene is mainly used with organic anti-corrosion materials, by filling the holes in those materials to stop the corrosion molecules from infiltrating through. Graphene can also be used as containers, carrying corrosion inhibitors that would be released and fill the crack when the coating is damaged. By modifying graphene, problems like agglomeration and accelerating corrosion can be solved. The result will be used for researchers who are looking for a conclusion in the graphene anti-corrosive coatings research area and provide the main focuses and details.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240990

    The application of renewable energy in transportation systems in China

    The energy consumption level in transportation is projected to continue its current upward trend until the year 2040. Motor gasoline and diesel are the most consumed energy sources in common transportation, followed by jet fuel and natural gas. Regrettably, biofuel and electric energy, which are renewable energy sources, had only a little contribution to overall energy consumption in transportation. This indicates that the use of renewable energy sources in transportation is still in its early stages. The rapid advancement of energy innovation is causing alarm among the general people. In 2020, greenhouse gas emissions from transportation reached a record high. In order to predict the future trajectory of renewable energy, it is crucial to closely monitor the utilization of nonrenewable energy sources in transportation, which is currently at a high level. This study examines the existing energy sources in China and utilizes reliable research papers and data to demonstrate the practicality of several energy advancements in current transportation systems. The study will employ a literature review method to examine the advancements in energy innovation within the domains of internal combustion engines and electric motors in automobiles, waterborne transportation, and aircraft.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240991

    Historical and Future global warming under different RCP emission scenarios

    Understanding the relationship between carbon emissions and climate change has become increasingly urgent amidst the universal endorsement of sustainable development and the establishment of net-zero carbon emission target (The Paris Agreement). In this study, model projections based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are used to examine future climate change under different representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios till 2300. Besides analysis of future global average temperature change under the emission scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP 8.5, historical data is first collected during the past three decades (1990-2021). The results show that the simulated global warming ranges from 0.9 to 1.3 ℃ between 1990 and 2021, consistent with the observations (0.93℃). Carbon emissions in China arose mostly from manufacturing and construction, electricity and heat and transport. Emissions from electricity, heat and transport increase by a high ratio of 7.7 and 3.5 times due to industry development. Under different RCP scenarios, the global surface temperature anomaly will increase by 0.2-1.0, 1.2-2.0, 3.5-4.3 and 3.0-8.5 ℃, respectively. The surface temperature anomaly values under RCP8.5 are much higher than those under other emission scenarios. Only in the RCP2.6 scenario (“sustainability”), the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2℃ threshold at the end of the 21st century. To attain net zero emissions, it is highly demanded to develop strict emission policies, chart a course toward decarbonization, and institute effective measures aimed at realizing net zero emissions within the short to medium term. Concurrently striving for economic objectives, managing the equilibrium between economic growth and environmental sustainability emerges as a critical imperative.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240992

    Medium office energy consumption optimization using EnergyPlus

    This research paper studies the impacts of HVAC system scheduling and building envelope material properties on the building energy efficiency in the downtown New York City, metropolitan area, that is highly associated with Urban Heat Island. By utilizing EnergyPlus for whole energy building simulation, the research compares two HVAC operational cases: a baseline case with constant temperature setpoints, and an occupancy-based temperature setpoint schedule. The study also investigated the influence of thermal conductivity variations in stucco exterior wall materials, with three cases, the default baseline thermal conductivity and a ±15% variance, respectively. Results indicate that occupancy-driven scheduling significantly reduces energy consumption by approximately 16% annually compared to baseline. Conversely, the influence of thermal conductivity on energy consumption is minimal, with only a 0.35% deviation noted in response to a 15% variation in thermal conductivity. This suggests that both optimizing HVAC scheduling and the thermal conductivity of building envelope materials can save building energy consumption while optimizing HVAC scheduling has a relatively stronger impact than optimizing the thermal conductivity with a 15% variance in downtown New York City.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240993

    Plane and vertical design research on end-around taxiways at high plateau airports

    The end-around taxiways have been proven to effectively reduce the risk of runway incursions caused by frequent aircraft crossings on closely spaced parallel runways, thus enhancing airport capacity. This practice has gained popularity in recent years, especially in large airports. However, there is currently limited experience in designing and operating end-around taxiways, particularly in high plateau airports facing challenging conditions such as a high water table and low obstacle clearance gradient. In this paper, we present a case study of the second runway project at a specific airport and propose various operational schemes for end-around taxiway construction, including straight, oblique, and controlled designs. We calculate aircraft payload under different obstacle clearance gradients using flight performance analysis. Taking into account both operational and groundwater levels, we determine the appropriate plane and vertical design of end-around taxiways. The findings of this research provide valuable references for the design of end-around taxiways.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240995

    Mechanistic study on the role of 3D-Printed biomimetic coral bone scaffolds in bone defect repair

    With the continuous innovation and development of 3D printing technology, 3D-printed biomimetic coral bone scaffolds have demonstrated significant potential in the field of bone defect repair. This paper aims to explore in-depth the mechanistic study of 3D-printed biomimetic coral bone scaffolds in bone defect repair, by systematically reviewing relevant literature and analyzing their potential mechanisms in promoting bone growth and improving the success rate of bone defect repair. Firstly, this paper introduces the fabrication process and material characteristics of 3D-printed biomimetic coral bone scaffolds. Secondly, the paper discusses the mechanisms of 3D-printed biomimetic coral bone scaffolds in terms of biocompatibility, biomechanical performance, as well as their roles in vascularization and bone formation. Finally, the paper outlines future research directions for 3D-printed biomimetic coral bone scaffolds, including further optimization of material properties, improvement of printing precision, and expansion of clinical applications.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240996

    Intelligent monitoring of surface evapotranspiration in the Heihe River Basin based on SEBS modelling

    [Objective] The Heihe River Basin, located in northwestern China, is the second largest inland basin in China, and its water resources play a crucial role in the ecology, agriculture and human life of the region. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of surface evapotranspiration in the Heihe River Basin and the potential impacts of these variations on water resource management. [Methods] To achieve this goal, we applied the PM-based dual-source model, a meteorological model for estimating global surface ET, which takes into account a variety of factors such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and downward solar shortwave radiation. By analysing the meteorological data and remote sensing data of the Black River Basin, we first investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of surface evapotranspiration. [Conclusion] The results show that surface evapotranspiration shows obvious seasonal and regional variations and is significantly affected by meteorological conditions. The inversion of surface ET in the Heihe River Basin by this dual-source model needs to be improved, and the trend of ET values calculated by the model is relatively small compared with the actual values.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240998

    Altered biotoxicity of cadmium to freshwater green algae by different concentrations of polystyrene

    Microplastic pollution has become a global problem, threatening water bodies and aquatic organisms around the world. Heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment is an environmental issue of long-term concern, and relatively few studies have been conducted on the compound toxic pollution of freshwater algae by microplastics and heavy metals. Therefore, in this study, Cd and polystyrene (PS) were selected as representative heavy metals and microplastics in the environment, and the toxic effects of the two pollutants on freshwater algae were investigated by determining the biomass of algal growth, chlorophyll a content, and the bioconcentration of heavy metals. It was found that the two pollutants alone could inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of the algae, and the toxicity increased with the increase of concentration. When the two pollutants were combined, the toxicity of Cd depended on the concentration of PS, and both low (1 mg/L) and high (100 mg/L) concentrations of PS increased the toxicity of Cd in a synergistic manner, whereas the medium concentration (10 mg/L) of PS showed an antagonistic effect, which was able to inhibit the toxicity of Cd.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20240999

    Analysis of large-scale high-quality graphene production and applications

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, is the thinnest and strongest material known to mankind. It has excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties, making it a promising material for a wide range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics, energy storage, and more. With the increasing demand for graphene in various applications, large-scale and high-quality graphene production has become a significant challenge. While early methods of graphene production involved mechanical exfoliation, this method is limited in terms of scalability and yield. To meet the increasing demand for large-scale production of graphene, various methods have been developed in recent years, including chemical vapor precipitation, epitaxial crystal growth, graphene oxide reduction and solvent exfoliation and so on. This study aims to introduce several existing methods for the mass production of graphene with high quality and analyzes the advantages and disadvantage involve thereof. The findings in this paper may provide a valuable reference for the industrial-scale production of graphene.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241000

    A computational enzymatic optimization for fixing carbon dioxide to starch

    Carbon dioxide is fixed and processed into starch by the plants’ photosynthesis through complicated molecular pathways. While planting and cultivating crops are the major ways to harvest starch, an artificial anabolic pathway has recently been realized in China. Traditional crop production demands extended harvest periods, extensive land, and substantial water use. In contrast, the artificial pathway enhances starch synthesis efficiently, using fewer resources for a more sustainable approach. In 2021, Chinese researchers reported the anabolic starch artificial pathway (ASAP) to synthesize starch in vitro. Although the previous research established a milestone, steps need to be optimized. In this work, enzymatic starch synthesis is chosen to be further engineered, building mutants with similar catalytic functions. Computational tools are used to build an iterative docking-mutating simulation (IDMS). It can automatically finish the cycle of protein mutations and docking. Autodock and Rosetta are used in the coding. 445 different protein mutants are generated and analyzed in silico, among which the best five were chosen for experimental investigation. In the experimental analysis, mutant E shows nearly the same catalytic efficiency as the wild-type in the first hour, with a 2.5-fold expression rate.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241001

    A review of catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) generated from the consumption of fossil fuels is one of the main factors contributing to the greenhouse effect. How to mitigate the greenhouse effect and reduce the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels has become an issue worthy of study. In recent years, a technology for the catalytic reduction of CO2 to fossil fuels and chemicals has attracted a great deal of attention by providing a new way to solve this problem. This paper reviews the basic principles of three fundamental catalytic CO2 reduction, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis and thermocatalysis, and two advanced catalytic modes, thermocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis, derived from these three modes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, the challenges that the catalytic reduction of CO2 is currently facing are also discussed. Although this technology has made significant progress over the decades, it is still in its preliminary stage with some shortcomings and there is a long way to go before it can be applied in reality.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241002

    A study on the design of the public spaces in elderly apartment based on the demands of “Three Types”

    With the progress of society and the economy, the Chinese population inevitably has an aging tendency. In this situation, the issue of aged providing becomes a focus that attracts all attention of the society, and elderly apartments have gradually become one of the most important forms of housing endowment. As a crucial part of the elderly apartment, public spaces are used for the elderly’s activity and association, and it should consider the elderly’s demands while designing. Depending on the differences in the elder’s somatic function, the elder could be classified into three types: self-care, device-helping, and nursing-cared. Furthermore, their demands for public spaces in the elderly apartment are different according to the different characteristics of the “Three Types”. This paper will analyze cases of elderly apartments at home and abroad and summarize their design methods of public spaces, then combine with the present situation in our country, put forward the design strategy of public spaces in elderly apartments of the “Three Types”, according to the characteristics of the elder, and provide a reference for the optimization of the public spaces in the elderly apartment.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241004

    The application of renewable materials in green chemistry

    Natural substances that are capable of being replaced or renewed over the course of a human lifetime or over a relatively short amount of time through natural processes are referred to as material that is renewable. Due to the fact that these materials are both sustainable and favorable to the environment, they are frequently used in a variety of industries, including the building industry, the textile industry, the energy industry, and the packaging industry. Given the circumstances, it is quite probable that this will have a profound effect on the future of humanity. Renewable materials commonly encompass biomass, bio-based polymers, natural fibers, wood, and lumber. The main focus of the study is to explore the utilization of renewable materials in green chemistry, namely biomass-sourced renewable materials, as well as other renewable materials such as food waste, recyclable plastics, and paper. This paper provides an in-depth review of the advantages and challenges related to renewable materials in the realm of green chemistry.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241005

    Hierarchical porous carbon with abundant N/O doping as an anode for zinc ion hybrid supercapacitors

    Aqueous zinc-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZISCs) known for their affordability, stability, and high energy density represent innovative energy storage devices. Porous carbon is usually used as the cathode material of ZISCs, and its structure significantly affects the dual performance of high power density and energy density of ZISCs. Herein, a one-pot carbonization strategy is proposed, eliminating the need for templates, additional heteroatom compounds, and activation processes. By precisely controlling the temperature to optimize the structure and electrochemical performance of carbon materials, we successfully synthesized hierarchical porous carbon materials (NOPC-800) with a high specific surface area of 1545.7 m²g⁻¹, featuring dual doping of 12.3 at% nitrogen and 13.35 at% oxygen. The self-doping of abundant nitrogen and oxygen atoms facilitates the chemical adsorption of ions and accelerates pseudocapacitive reaction kinetics. Leveraging these advantages, ZISCs were assembled using NOPC-800 as the positive electrode and zinc as the negative electrode, showcasing remarkable performance: a specific capacity of up to 121.9 mAh g⁻¹, an energy density of 97.5 Wh kg⁻¹, and a power density of up to 16000 W kg⁻¹. Remarkably, NOPC-800 maintained an excellent capacity retention of 94.9% after 10,000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g⁻¹. This research paves an innovative and feasible path for the design and advancement of novel heteroatom-rich carbon cathodes.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241006

    Review on preheating systems for Lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles under low temperature circumstance

    Nowadays, energy and environmental protection issues have become the focus of most attention. The development of electric vehicles which depends on lithium ion battery as power source is one of the most applicable way in dealing with these issues. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is highly favoured for its outstanding features in energy density, cycle life and energy retention. However, its severe sensitivity to working temperatures leads to problems when driving electric vehicles. Therefore, researchers and engineers have explored approaches to guaranteeing a suitable working temperature for LIB, one of which is the battery preheating system. To clarify the advancement of this system, both internal and external preheating methods studied in recent years are summarized, and the discussion for future research is included.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241009

    Performance analysis and application fields of reactive powder concrete

    Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is a novel concrete material prepared from highly active composite admixtures, cement, fine sand, and micro steel fibers through appropriate curing and processing techniques. RPC not only exhibits ultra-high strength and durability but also demonstrates outstanding toughness, good volume stability, and excellent environmental performance. Its use can reduce the demand for natural resources, extend the service life of structures, and reduce waste generation, aligning with the direction of sustainable development and green building. This makes it an ideal choice for constructing large-span lightweight structures and structures operating in harsh environmental conditions, attracting extensive research attention in the international engineering materials field. In summary, RPC, as a new type of concrete material, has broad application prospects in the construction field. With continuous research and technological development, RPC will undoubtedly bring more innovations and new solutions to the construction industry, promoting its continuous progress and development.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-09 Doi: 10.54254/2755-2721/63/20241010

    Numerical study of deposition rates of monodisperse particles in curved pipes with different expansion or shrinkage variables

    The study of particle deposition in ventilation ducts is crucial as it can have a significant impact on indoor air quality (IAQ) and human health. However, little research has been done on bends in ducts with different cross-sections. This study employs the Eulerian - Lagrange method to investigate particle deposition in a 90° elbow with gradually increasing and decreasing cross-sectional areas. The turbulence model used is based on the RNG k-ε, and the particulate phase is modelled by the discrete phase model (DPM). The study aims to discuss the effect of the cross-sectional asymptotic coefficient (K) and the Stokes number on particle deposition. The study found that as K increased, the particle deposition efficiency of the 90-degree bends decreased. Additionally, particles were primarily deposited on the outer curved surface of the bends. Specifically, when the particle size was 2 μm, the pipe with K=0.75 had a particle deposition efficiency five times greater than that of K=1.25.

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